|Biofuel Smoke and Child Anemia in 29 Developing Countries: A Multilevel Analysis|
||Hmwe Hmwe Kyu, Katholiki Georgiades, Michael H. Boyle
||Annals of Epidemiology, Volume 20, Issue 11, November 2010, Pages 811-817, doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2010.07.096
More than one region
In this study we examined the effect of biofuel smoke exposure at the national and child levels on child anemia.
Data are from DemographicandHealthSurveys conducted between 2003 and 2007. The respondents were women (15-49 years) and their children (0-59 months) (n = 117,454) in 29 developing countries.
In multinomial logistic regression models, both moderate and high exposure to biofuel smoke at the country level are associated with moderate/severe anemia (odds ratio [OR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.28-4.36 vs OR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.37-5.72) after adjusting for covariates. Exposure to biofuel smoke at home is associated with mild anemia (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01-1.13), and there are interactions between biofuel smoke exposure and child age in months on mild anemia (OR, 1.004; 95% CI, 1.002-1.006) and moderate/severe anemia (OR, 1.006; 95% CI, 1.004-1.008). There are also interactions between biofuel smoke exposure at home and diarrhea on mild anemia (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.10-1.34) and on moderate/severe anemia (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01-1.22); and fever on moderate/severe anemia (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.22-1.45).
Given the increasing number of people relying on biofuels in developing countries, policies and programs are necessary to protect children from being exposed to this harmful smoke at home.
Key Words: Biofuel Smoke; Child Anemia; Developing Countries; Multi-Level Modeling