According to the 2005 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey, 1.4 percent of Ethiopian
adults (age 15-49) were infected with HIV. The prevalence was much higher in urban areas, among
women, and among adults who had multiple sexual partners and non-regular partners. Using data
from the two recent Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys, conducted in 2000 and 2005, this
study examined changes in key HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior indicators.
Significant changes in selected indicators during 2000 and 2005 were determined using the t-test. The
study revealed a number of encouraging signs that HIV/AIDS prevention programs are having the
intended effects. Knowledge of HIV prevention methods increased in recent years, and there has been
considerable increase in youth practicing sexual abstinence. Fewer adults reported having multiple
partners and the proportion reporting sexual intercourse with a non-spousal partner decreased
substantially. Although, the overall use of condoms remained low, use of condoms with non-spousal
partners increased substantially. However, there has been little change in the proportion of women
who know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child, indicating a need for intensified
communication program efforts on PMTCT targeting women.