Suzuki, Chiho, Vinod Mishra, Pav. Govindasamy, Rathavuth Hong, and Yuan Gu. 2008. Changes in HIV-related Knowledge and Behavior in Ethiopia, 2000-2005: Further Analysis of the 2005 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey. DHS Further Analysis Reports No. 56. Calverton, Maryland, USA: Macro International
According to the 2005 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey, 1.4 percent of Ethiopian adults (age 15-49) were infected with HIV. The prevalence was much higher in urban areas, among women, and among adults who had multiple sexual partners and non-regular partners. Using data from the two recent Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys, conducted in 2000 and 2005, this study examined changes in key HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior indicators. Significant changes in selected indicators during 2000 and 2005 were determined using the t-test. The study revealed a number of encouraging signs that HIV/AIDS prevention programs are having the intended effects. Knowledge of HIV prevention methods increased in recent years, and there has been considerable increase in youth practicing sexual abstinence. Fewer adults reported having multiple partners and the proportion reporting sexual intercourse with a non-spousal partner decreased substantially. Although, the overall use of condoms remained low, use of condoms with non-spousal partners increased substantially. However, there has been little change in the proportion of women who know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child, indicating a need for intensified communication program efforts on PMTCT targeting women.