The objective of this study is to examine the associations of demographic and socioeconomic
characteristics, knowledge and attitudes, and risk and protective factors with HIV infection among
adult men and women in Ethiopia. The study used data from the 2005 Ethiopia Demographic and
Health Survey. The analysis included 4,358 women and 3,037 men aged 15 to 49 years, who ever had
sexual experience, completed the interview, and had a valid HIV test result. HIV serostatus data for
men and women, and for lower HIV prevalence (<3 percent) and higher HIV prevalence (_3 percent)
regions, were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistical methods to determine factors
associated with being HIV-positive.