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Spatial Patterns and Multilevel Analysis of Factors Associated with Antenatal Care Visits in Nigeria: Insight from the 2018 Nigeria Demographic Health Survey
Authors: Obasanjo Afolabi Bolarinwa, Barbara Sakyi, Bright Opoku Ahinkorah, Kobi V Ajayi, Abdul-Aziz Seidu, John Elvis Hagan Jr, Zemenu Tadesse Tessema
Source: Healthcare (Basel), Volume 9, issue 10; DOI:10.3390/healthcare9101389
Topic(s): Antenatal care
Pregnancy outcomes
Spatial analysis
Country: Africa
Published: OCT 2021
Abstract: Despite global progress towards antenatal care (ANC) uptake, ANC utilization in a number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, such as Nigeria, is low. Although several studies have identified the determinants and factors associated with ANC services utilization in Nigeria, there is a gap in knowledge about the spatial patterns in ANC use. Therefore, this study aims to map the spatial distribution and factors associated with ANC visits in Nigeria. A cross-sectional dataset was obtained from the 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. A total of 20,003 women aged 15-49 were considered in this study. Both spatial and multilevel analyses were carried out. The results were presented in spatial maps and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) at a 95% confidence interval (CI). Hot spot areas (high proportion of an incomplete ANC visit) were located in Sokoto, Kebbi, Zamfara, Katsina, Kano, Jigawa, Bauchi, Niger, Borno, Gombe, and Bayelsa. Regional disparities in incomplete ANC visits were found in this study. Maternal age, maternal education, partner's level of education, working status, ethnicity, parity, religion, exposure to media, place of residence, wealth index, region, and community literacy level were factors associated with incomplete ANC. There is a need to consider these factors in the design and strengthening of existing interventions (e.g., mini-clinics) aimed at increasing ANC visits to help attain maternal health-related Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. The regional disparities in incomplete ANC visits also need to be considered by encouraging pregnant women in hotspot areas to attend ANC visits.