## Initial Breastfeeding

### Percentage of children ever breastfed, who started breastfeeding within one hour of birth, who started breastfeeding within one day of birth, and who received a prelacteal feed

#### Definition

1)     Percentage of last-born children born in the past 2 years ever breastfed.

2)      Percentage of last-born children born in the past 2 years who started breastfeeding within one hour of birth.

3)     Percentage of last-born children born in the past 2 years who started breastfeeding within one day of birth.

4)     Percentage of last-born children born in the past 2 years who were ever breastfed and who received a prelacteal feed.

##### Coverage:

Population base: Last-born children born in the 2 years preceding the survey, surviving and dead (KR file)

Time period: Two years preceding the survey

Numerators:

Number of last-born children age 0-23 months (midx = 1 & b19 < 24) who:

1)     Were ever breastfed (m4 ≠ 94,99)

2)     Started breastfeeding within one hour of birth (m4 ≠ 94,99 & m34 in 0,100)

3)     Started breastfeeding within one day of birth (m4 ≠ 94,99 & m34 in 0:123 [23 hours])

4)     Were ever breastfed and given something other than breast milk during the first three days of life (m4 ≠ 94,99 & m55 = 1)

Denominators:

1)     For numerator 1, 2, 3: Number of last-born children who were born in the 2 years preceding the survey (midx = 1 & b19 < 24)

2)     For numerator 4: Number of last-born children who were born in the 2 years preceding the survey who were ever breastfed (midx = 1 & b19 < 24 & m4 ≠ 94,99)

Variables: KR file.

 midx Index to Birth History b19 Current age of child in months (months since birth for dead children) m4 Duration of breastfeeding m34 When child put to breast m55 Given child anything other than breast milk v005 Woman’s individual sample weight

#### Calculation

Numerators divided by denominator, multiplied by 100.

#### Handling of Missing Values

Missing data are excluded from numerators but are included in denominators.

#### Notes and Considerations

The DHS6 and DHS7 indicators on ever breastfed, started breastfeeding within one hour and within one day of birth are based on last-born children born in the 2 years preceding the survey; and the indicator on received a prelacteal feed is based on last-born children born in the 2 years preceding the survey ever breastfed.

#### Changes over Time

The initial breastfeeding indicators have changed over time. For DHS-IV and DHS-V surveys, the initiation of breastfeeding indicators were reported for all children born in the 5 years before the survey.

Initiation of breastfeeding within one hour and within one day of birth were calculated among the children who were ever-breastfed, whereas for the DHS-VI and DHS-7 results were based on last-born children who were born in the 2 years preceding the survey. Hence, caution should be observed when comparing the figures in DHS-VI and DHS-7 with the results published in the final reports for previous DHS surveys.

#### References

WHO. 2007. Indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices.

Part I Definitions: http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/infantfeeding/9789241596664/en/

Part II Measurement: http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/infantfeeding/9789241599290/en/

#### Resources

DHS-7 Tabulation plan: Table 11.2

API Indicator IDs: CN_BRFI_C_EVR, CN_BRFI_C_1HR, CN_BRFI_C_1DY, CN_BRFI_C_PLF

IYCF Indicator 1 (WHO core indicator): Early initiation of breastfeeding

IYCF Indicator 9 (WHO optional indicator): Children ever breastfed

WHO 100 Core Health Indicators: Early initiation of breastfeeding

MICS6 Indicator TC.30: Children ever breastfed

MICS6 Indicator TC.31: Early initiation of breastfeeding