Primary school net attendance ratio (NAR) for:

1) De facto male household population.

2) De facto female household population.

3) De facto household population of both sexes.

Secondary school net attendance ratio (NAR) for:

4) De facto male household population.

5) De facto female household population.

6) De facto household population of both sexes.

Primary school gross attendance ratio (GAR) for:

7) De facto male household population.

8) De facto female household population.

9) De facto household population of both sexes.

Secondary school gross attendance ratio (GAR) for:

10) De facto male household population.

11) De facto female household population.

12) De facto household population of both sexes.

Gender parity indices for:

13) Net attendance ratio for primary school.

14) Net attendance ratio for secondary school.

15) Gross attendance ratio for primary school.

16) Gross attendance ratio for secondary school.

Coverage:

Population base: De facto school age population

Time period: Current status at time of survey

Numerators:

Primary school NAR:

1) Number of de facto male population attending primary school

(hv103 = 1 & hv104 = 1 & age_schl in A:B & hv122 = 1)

2) Number of de facto female population attending primary school

(hv103 = 1 & hv104 = 2 & age_schl in A:B & hv122 = 1)

3) Number of de facto total of both sexes population attending primary school

(hv103 = 1 & age_schl in A:B & hv122 = 1)

Secondary school NAR:

4) Number of de facto male population attending secondary school

(hv103 = 1 & hv104 = 1 & age_schl in C:D & hv122 = 2)

5) Number of de facto female population attending secondary school

(hv103 = 1 & hv104 = 2 & age_schl in C:D & hv122 = 2)

6) Number of de facto total population of both sexes attending secondary school

(hv103 = 1 & age_schl in C:D & hv122 = 2)

Primary school GAR:

7) Number of de facto male population attending primary school

(hv103 = 1 & hv104 = 1 & hv122 = 1)

8) Number of de facto female population attending primary school

(hv103 = 1 & hv104 = 2 & hv122 = 1)

9) Number of de facto total of both sexes population attending primary school

(hv103 = 1 & hv122 = 1)

Secondary school GAR:

10) Number of de facto male population attending secondary school

(hv103 = 1 & hv104 = 1 & hv122 = 2)

11) Number of de facto female population attending secondary school

(hv103 = 1 & hv104 = 2 & hv122 = 2)

12) Number of de facto total population of both sexes attending secondary school

(hv103 = 1 & hv122 = 2)

Denominators:

Primary school:

a) Number of de facto primary school age male population

b) Number of de facto primary school age female population

c) Number of de facto primary school age total population of both sexes

Secondary school:

d) Number of de facto secondary school age male population

e) Number of de facto secondary school age female population

f) Number of de facto secondary school age total population of both sexes

Denominators for 7-12 are the same as denominators 1-6, respectively

See *Calculation* for the method used to calculate primary school age and secondary school age population (age_schl in A:B or C:D).

Variables: PR file.

hv008 |
Date of interview (CMC) |

hv103 |
Slept last night |

hv104 |
Sex of household member |

hv105 |
Age of household members |

hv122 |
Educational level during current school year |

hv005 |
Household sample weight |

To calculate the primary school age and secondary school age population, first the standard age groups for primary and secondary school in the particular country are established, for example, as 6-11 and 12-17 respectively. Sources for establishing the age range include the national Ministry of Education and the UNESCO Institute for Statistics database. Additionally, the month of the start of the academic year (m_acadyr) is also established. As the survey may take place at any point in the academic year and a child’s age may have changed since the start of the academic year, the age of the person at the start of the academic year is estimated. To do this, first the century month code of the start of the academic year is calculated as:

cmc_acadyr = ((hv007 -1900)*12+m_acadyr) if m_acadyr >= hv006

cmc_acadyr = ((hv007-1-1900)*12+m_acadyr) if m_acadyr < hv006

To calculate the age at the start of the school year a century month code of date of birth (cmcdob) is needed for all persons age 5-24 using one of two approaches is used:

Merge the birth history data for b3 from the BR file onto the PR file using cluster (hv001/v001), household (hv002/v002), and line number in the household roster (hvidx/b16). If the person is listed in the birth history of any women (BR file), the century month code (CMC) of the date of birth of the person (b3) is used as cmcdob.

If the CMC date of birth of the person is not known, a century month code for the date of birth is randomly imputed using a uniform distribution between the possible bounds of the date of birth, calculated as the CMC date of interview minus 12 times the age in years as a maximum and 11 months earlier as a minimum:

max_cmcdob = hv008 - hv105*12

min_cmcdob = max_cmcdob - 11

cmcdob = random(min_cmcdob, max_cmcdob)

The age at the start of the academic year is then calculated by subtracting the CMC date of birth from the CMC date of start of academic year as:

age_schl = int( (cmc_acadyr - cmcdob) / 12)

The age at the start of the academic year (age_schl) is then used to determine the primary and secondary school age populations used in the numerators for the NARs and the denominators for both the NARs and the GARs.

The NARs and GARs are then calculated by dividing the numerators by the denominators and multiplying by 100.

The Gender Parity Indices are calculated by dividing the NAR or GAR for females by the corresponding NAR or GAR for males.

Handling of Missing Values

Population with missing information for age are assumed to be outside the age range of 5-24. Population with missing information for sex are excluded from the sex-specific numerators and denominators but included in the total (both sexes) numerators and denominators. Population with missing information or “don’t know” responses for level of education are excluded from the numerators.

NAR for primary school is the percentage of the primary-school age (A-B years) population that is attending primary school. The NAR for secondary school is the percentage of the secondary-school age (C-D years) population that is attending secondary school. By definition, the NAR cannot exceed 100.0.

The GAR for primary school is the total number of primary school students, expressed as a percentage of the official primary-school-age population. The GAR for secondary school is the total number of secondary school students, expressed as a percentage of the official secondary-school-age population. If there are significant numbers of overage and underage students at a given level of schooling, the GAR can exceed 100.0.

The Gender Parity Index for primary school is the ratio of the primary school NAR (GAR) for females to the NAR (GAR) for males. The Gender Parity Index for secondary school is the ratio of the secondary school NAR (GAR) for females to the NAR (GAR) for males.

Langsten, R. 2017. "School fee abolition and changes in education indicators." *International Journal of Educational Development* 53: 163-175.

UNESCO Institute for Statistics database (http://data.uis.unesco.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=edulit_ds)

DHS-8 Tabulation plan: Table 2.12

API Indicator IDs:

ED_NARP_M_MAL, ED_NARP_W_FEM, ED_NARP_B_BTH, ED_NARP_B_GPI,

ED_GARP_M_MAL, ED_GARP_W_FEM, ED_GARP_B_BTH, ED_GARP_B_GPI,

ED_NARS_M_MAL, ED_NARS_W_FEM, ED_NARS_B_BTH, ED_NARS_B_GPI,

ED_GARS_M_MAL, ED_GARS_W_FEM, ED_GARS_B_BTH, ED_GARS_B_GPI

MICS6 Indicator LN.5a: Net attendance ratio: Among primary school age

MICS6 Indicator LN.5b: Net attendance ratio: Among lower secondary school age

MICS6 Indicator LN.5c: Net attendance ratio: Among upper secondary school age

MICS6 Indicator LN.11a: Education Parity Indices (Gender)