Maternal Mortality and Pregnancy-related Mortality

 

Age-specific pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rates, and total pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rate

 

Definition

 

1)     Age-specific pregnancy-related mortality rates.

2)     Age-specific maternal mortality rates.

3)     Total pregnancy-related mortality rate.

4)     Total maternal mortality rate.

 

Pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rates are the ratio of pregnancy-related deaths or maternal deaths to the women-years of exposure for women aged 15–49 years.

See Notes and Considerations for the definitions of pregnancy-related mortality and maternal mortality. See also Pregnancy-related mortality ratio and maternal mortality ratio.

 

Coverage:

Population base: Women age 15-49 years (IR file)

Time period: Seven-year periods of time preceding the survey, excluding the month of interview. Typically 0-6 years preceding the survey (v008-1 to v008-84), but other time periods may also be calculated such as 7-13 years, 0-13 years, 0-10 years preceding the survey

 

Numerators:

1)     Number of female siblings of respondents who died during pregnancy, delivery or within two months of delivery (mm1 = 2 & mm2 = 0 & mm9 in 2:6) in the period 0-6 years prior to the interview by five-year age group at time of death

2)     Number of female siblings of respondents who died during pregnancy, delivery or within 42 days of delivery (mm1 = 2 & mm2 = 0 & mm9 in 2:6 & mm12 in 100:141,198,199), excluding due to accidents or violence (mm16 ≠ 1 & mm16 ≠ 2), in the period 0-6 years prior to the interview by five-year age group at time of death

 

Denominator: Number of years of exposure of female siblings of respondents during the period 0-6 years prior to the survey by five-year age group

 

Variables: IR file.

v008

CMC Date of interview

mm1

Sex of sibling

mm2

Survival status of sibling

mm4

Sibling's date of birth (CMC)

mm8

Date of death of sibling (CMC)

mm9

Sibling's death and pregnancy

mm12

Amount of time between sibling's delivery and death

mm16

Sibling's death due to violence or accident

v005

Women's individual sample weight

 

Calculation

 

Numerator:

Deaths are tabulated in a similar way to the adult age-specific mortality rates (see Calculation for Adult Mortality Rates, but are restricted to:

1)     Deaths to female siblings who died during pregnancy, delivery or within two months of delivery (mm1 = 2 & mm2 = 0 & mm9 in 2:6).

2)     Deaths to female siblings who died during pregnancy, delivery or within 42 days of delivery, excluding deaths due to accidents or violence (mm1 = 2 & mm2 = 0 & mm9 in 2:6 & mm12 in 100:141,198,199 & mm16 ≠ 1 & mm16 ≠ 2).

 

Denominator: Women-years of exposure are calculated in exactly the same way as for adult age-specific mortality.  See Calculation for Adult Mortality Rates.

 

Once the numerators and denominators are calculated, age-specific pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rates are obtained by the division of the numerators by the corresponding denominators and multiplying by 1000. The total pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rates (for age 15-49) are obtained by multiplying the age-specific mortality rates by the proportion of respondents in the five-year age group and then summing the age distribution-adjusted pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rates.

 

Handling of Missing Values

 

Siblings whose maternal status at the time of death are unknown to the respondent or are missing are assumed not to be pregnancy-related or maternal deaths.

 

For maternal deaths, if the number of days after delivery is missing or the response was “don’t know”, it is already known that the death was within 2 months and it is assumed to be within the first 42 days.

 

If the response to whether the death was caused by an accident or violence is missing or the response was “don’t know”, the death is assumed to have not been due to an accident or violence.

 

See also Handling of Missing Values  for Adult Mortality Rates.

 

Notes and Considerations

 

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines pregnancy-related deaths and maternal deaths as follows:

·        Pregnancy-related death is defined as the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the cause of death.

·        Maternal death is the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes.

 

The DHS Program indicators differ from these definitions in two ways:

1)     for the pregnancy-related mortality, the period of two months (rather than 42 days) following termination of pregnancy is used to provide consistent trend data with previously reported estimates of maternal mortality from earlier surveys (see Changes over Time),

2)     for maternal mortality, a survey such as DHS cannot capture the definition of maternal mortality precisely due to the complexity of the issues, but limits the period following termination of pregnancy to 42 days, and, as a proxy for the accidental or incidental causes, excludes deaths reported due to accidents or violence.

 

The DHS adult and maternal mortality module collects information from respondents about the maternal status of the death of their sisters born to the same mother by asking if the sister died while pregnant, during delivery or within two months after the end of a pregnancy or a childbirth. Younger (and male) respondents may not know that their older sister was even pregnant if the sister was several years older or died during pregnancy or from an induced abortion, thus biasing pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rates downward. Women who intend to have an induced abortion may also not disclose their pregnancy status to family members. On the other hand, deaths due to non-maternal causes, such as accidents and illnesses, will be included as pregnancy-related deaths if they occurred during pregnancy or within two months after the end of the pregnancy or childbirth. Simulation models show that up to one-third of classified as pregnancy-related may not be due to maternal causes, resulting in an upward bias. The final result of both these biases, which operate simultaneously, is unknown.

 

Another important issue is location. The DHS does not collect information on the residence of neither sisters who died nor of the residence during the exposure period of both living and dead sisters. The residence at the time of interview of respondents is not necessarily the same as that of their sisters. Therefore, DHS usually does not publish pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rates by area.

 

Pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rates are subject to high levels of sampling error due to their relatively rare occurrence.

 

Age-adjusted pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rates are expressed per 1,000 women age 15-49 and represent the risk of pregnancy-related death or death due to maternal causes per 1,000 women.

 

Changes over Time

 

In DHS-7, The DHS Program changed the definition and calculation of maternal mortality.  The new definition of maternal mortality more closely agrees with the WHO definition of mortality.  The prior definition of maternal mortality corresponds with the WHO definition of pregnancy-related mortality.  When comparing estimates over time, the pregnancy-related mortality estimates from surveys since 2015 should be compared with those labeled maternal mortality in survey reports prior to 2015.  Do not compare maternal mortality for surveys after 2015 with those from before 2015 as the definitions are different.

 

For more information on the definitions of pregnancy-related mortality and maternal mortality, and how they compare with the WHO definitions, see The DHS Program YouTube video series on

Maternal and Pregnancy-Related Mortality, including:

·        Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) Indicator Snapshot

·        Differences Between Maternal and Pregnancy-Related Mortality

·        Interpreting Trends in Pregnancy-Related Mortality

 

In addition, The DHS Program made changes to the Adult and Maternal Mortality Module in order to collect a more complete list of all siblings of respondents.  The changes include asking more questions to capture information about siblings who may have died, live elsewhere, or have a different father but the same mother. See the Adult and Maternal Mortality Module in the DHS Questionnaire Modules at https://www.dhsprogram.com/publications/publication-DHSQM-DHS-Questionnaires-and-Manuals.cfm.

 

In DHS-IV and earlier surveys, siblings whose maternal status at the time of death were unknown to the respondent or were missing in the data set were allocated to maternal deaths in the proportion they were to deaths of any maternal status. For each age group of siblings, the number of deaths of known maternal status was divided by the number of deaths of any status to get the proportion of maternal deaths. This proportion was then multiplied by the number of deaths of unknown status to calculate the number of deaths to add to the known maternal deaths to get the total number of maternal deaths in each age group.

 

Also, in DHS-IV and earlier surveys, maternal deaths of sisters 50 years and older were added to the number of maternal deaths of sisters 45-49 years.

 

References

 

Assaf, S., L. Horton, M. Bornstein, and T. Pullum. 2017. Levels and Trends of Maternal and Child Health Indicators in 11 Middle East and North African Countries. DHS Comparative Report No. 46. Rockville, Maryland, USA: ICF. https://www.dhsprogram.com/publications/publication-CR46-Comparative-Reports.cfm

 

Moultrie T.A., R.E. Dorrington, A.G. Hill, K. Hill, I.M. Timæus and B. Zaba (eds). 2013. Tools for Demographic Estimation. Paris: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population.

http://demographicestimation.iussp.org/content/estimation-adult-mortality-sibling-histories

 

Pullum, T., Shireen A., and S. Staveteig. 2017. Comparisons of DHS Estimates of Fertility and Mortality with Other Estimates. DHS Methodological Reports No. 21. Rockville, Maryland, USA: ICF. https://www.dhsprogram.com/publications/publication-MR21-Methodological-Reports.cfm

 

Stanton, C., N. Abderrahim, and K. Hill. 1997. DHS maternal mortality indicators: An assessment of data quality and implications for data use. DHS Analytical Reports No. 4. Calverton, Maryland, USA: Macro International. https://www.dhsprogram.com/publications/publication-AR4-Analytical-Studies.cfm

 

Trussell J. and Rodriguez G. (1990) “A Note On the Sisterhood Estimation of Maternal Mortality.” Studies in Family Planning, 21, 6: 344-346.

 

Resources

 

DHS-7 Tabulation plan: Tables MM.3 and C.10

 

API Indicator IDs:

MM_MMRT_W_PDT, MM_MMRT_W_MDT, MM_MMRT_W_EXP, MM_MMRT_W_PRT, MM_MMRT_W_MRT
(API link, STATcompiler link)

 

WHO. Maternal mortality ratio: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/statistics/indmaternalmortality/en/

 

The DHS Program YouTube video series:

Maternal and Pregnancy-Related Mortality

https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLagqLv-gqpTO6YQasXjBnRvPGJpB6jePf

Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) Indicator Snapshot: https://youtu.be/Z_VraFDfGxQ

Differences Between Maternal and Pregnancy-Related Mortality: https://youtu.be/HPT2usn0v-o

Interpreting Trends in Pregnancy-Related Mortality: https://youtu.be/imJq-XmC3e4


 

Percentage of female deaths that are pregnancy-related deaths and maternal deaths

 

Definition

 

1)     Percentage of female deaths to women age 15-49 that are pregnancy-related deaths.

2)     Percentage of female deaths to women age 15-49 that are maternal deaths.

 

Coverage:

Population base: Women age 15-49 years (IR file)

Time period: Seven-year periods of time preceding the survey (v008-1 to v008-84), excluding the month of interview

 

Numerators:

1)     Number of female siblings of respondents who died during pregnancy, delivery or within two months of delivery in the period 0-6, 7-13, and 0-13 years prior to the interview by five-year age group at time of death

2)     Number of female siblings of respondents who died during pregnancy, delivery or within 42 days of delivery, excluding due to accidents or violence, in the period 0-6, 7-13, and 0-13 years prior to the interview by five-year age group at time of death.

 

Denominator: Number of female siblings of respondents who died within the period of interest

 

Variables: IR file.

v008

CMC Date of interview

mm1

Sex of sibling

mm2

Survival status of sibling

mm4

Sibling's date of birth (CMC)

mm8

Date of death of sibling (CMC)

mm9

Sibling's death and pregnancy

mm12

Amount of time between sibling's delivery and death

mm16

Sibling's death due to violence or accident

v005

Women's individual sample weight

 

Calculation

 

Numerator: Pregnancy-related and maternal deaths are tabulated in a similar way to the adult age-specific mortality rates (see Calculation for Adult Mortality Rates), but are restricted to:

Deaths to female siblings who died during pregnancy, delivery or within two months of delivery (mm1 = 2 & mm2 = 0 & mm9 in 2:6).

Deaths to female siblings who died during pregnancy, delivery or within 42 days of delivery, excluding deaths due to accidents or violence (mm1 = 2 & mm2 = 0 & mm9 in 2:6 & mm12 in 100:141,198,199 & mm16 ≠ 1 & mm16 ≠ 2).

 

Denominator: Female deaths are tabulated in the same way as the numerator for the adult age-specific mortality rates for females (see Calculation for Adult Mortality Rates) (mm1 = 2 & mm2 = 0).

 

The total proportion of female deaths that are pregnancy-related or maternal is calculated by dividing the total pregnancy-related mortality rate or maternal mortality rate by the general 15-49 adult mortality rate of women (see Age-specific pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rates, and total pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rate).

 

Handling of Missing Values

 

See Handling of Missing Values for Age-specific pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rates, and total pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rate.

 

Changes over Time

 

See Changes over Time for Age-specific pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rates, and total pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rate.

 

References

 

See References for Age-specific pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rates, and total pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rate.

 

Resources

 

DHS-7 Tabulation plan: Tables MM.3

 

API Indicator IDs: MM_MMRT_W_FDP, MM_MMRT_W_FDM

(API link, STATcompiler link)

 


 

Pregnancy-related mortality ratio and maternal mortality ratio

 

Definition

 

Pregnancy-related mortality ratio (PRMR): Number of pregnancy-related deaths per 100 000 live births.

Maternal mortality ratio (MMR): Number of maternal deaths per 100 000 live births.

 

Coverage:

Population base: Women age 15-49 years (IR file)

Time period: Seven-year periods of time preceding the survey, excluding the month of interview. Typically 0-6 years preceding the survey (v008-1 to v008-84), but other time periods may also be calculated such as 7-13 years, 0-13 years, 0-10 years preceding the survey

 

Numerators:

1)     Total pregnancy-related mortality rate for the period

2)     Total maternal mortality rate for the period

 

Denominator: Age-adjusted general fertility rate (GFR) for the same time period

 

See below for the calculation of the pregnancy-related and maternal mortality ratios.

 

Variables: IR file.

v008

CMC Date of interview

mm1

Sex of sibling

mm2

Survival status of sibling

mm4

Sibling's date of birth (CMC)

mm8

Date of death of sibling (CMC)

mm9

Sibling's death and pregnancy

mm12

Amount of time between sibling's delivery and death

mm16

Sibling's death due to violence or accident

v005

Women's individual sample weight

 

Calculation

 

See Age-specific pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rates, and total pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rate for the calculation of these rates.

 

The pregnancy-related mortality ratio (PRMR) and the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) are calculated by dividing the total pregnancy-related mortality rate and the total maternal mortality rate by the general fertility rate for the same period and are expressed per 100,000 births.

 

Note that the general fertility rate is age-standardized by multiplying the age-specific fertility rates by the proportion of women surveyed in each age group, and then summing the products. The general fertility rate is calculated for the same time period as for the pregnancy-related mortality rate and the maternal mortality rate. See General Fertility Rate in Chapter 5.

 

Handling of Missing Values

 

Siblings whose maternal status at the time of death are unknown to the respondent or are missing are assumed not to be pregnancy-related or maternal deaths.

 

For maternal deaths, if the number of days after delivery is missing or the response was “don’t know”, it is already known that the death was within 2 months and it is assumed to be within the first 42 days.

 

If the response to whether the death was caused by an accident or violence is missing or the response was “don’t know”, the death is assumed to have not been due to an accident or violence.

 

See also Handling of Missing Values for Adult Mortality Rates.

 

Notes and Considerations

 

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines pregnancy-related deaths and maternal deaths as follows:

·        Pregnancy-related death is defined as the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the cause of death.

·        Maternal death is the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes.

 

The DHS Program indicators differ from these definitions in two ways:

1)     for the pregnancy-related mortality, the period of two months (rather than 42 days) following termination of pregnancy is used to provide consistent trend data with previously reported estimates of maternal mortality from earlier surveys (see Changes over Time),

2)     for maternal mortality, a survey such as DHS cannot capture the definition of maternal mortality precisely due to the complexity of the issues, but limits the period following termination of pregnancy to 42 days, and, as a proxy for the accidental or incidental causes, excludes deaths reported due to accidents or violence.

 

The DHS adult and maternal mortality module collects information from respondents about the maternal status of the death of their sisters born to the same mother by asking if the sister died while pregnant, during delivery or within two months after the end of a pregnancy or a childbirth. Younger (and male) respondents may not know that their older sister was even pregnant if the sister was several years older or died during pregnancy or from an induced abortion, thus biasing pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rates downward. Women who intend to have an induced abortion may also not disclose their pregnancy status to family members. On the other hand, deaths due to non-maternal causes, such as accidents and illnesses, will be included as pregnancy-related deaths if they occurred during pregnancy or within two months after the end of the pregnancy or childbirth. Simulation models show that up to one-third of classified as pregnancy-related may not be due to maternal causes, resulting in an upward bias. The final result of both these biases, which operate simultaneously, is unknown.

 

Another important issue is location. The DHS does not collect information on the residence of neither sisters who died nor of the residence during the exposure period of both living and dead sisters. The residence at the time of interview of respondents is not necessarily the same as that of their sisters. Therefore, DHS usually does not publish pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rates by area.

 

Expressed per 100,000 live births; calculated as the age-adjusted maternal mortality rate times 100 divided by the age-adjusted general fertility rate           .

 

Maternal mortality rates and ratios are subject to high levels of relative sampling error due to their relatively rare occurrence. For example, a maternal mortality ratio of 500 maternal deaths per 100,000 births has the same sampling error as an infant mortality rate of 5 infant deaths per 1000 births. For a sample of about 15,000 respondents, the 95% confidence interval of the MMR would be about 406 to 594 maternal deaths per 100,000 births.

 

Changes over Time

 

In DHS-7, The DHS Program changed the definition and calculation of maternal mortality.  The new definition of maternal mortality more closely agrees with the WHO definition of mortality.  The prior definition of maternal mortality corresponds with the WHO definition of pregnancy-related mortality.  When comparing estimates over time, the pregnancy-related mortality estimates from surveys since 2015 should be compared with those labeled maternal mortality in survey reports prior to 2015.  Do not compare maternal mortality for surveys after 2015 with those from before 2015 as the definitions are different.

 

For more information on the definitions of pregnancy-related mortality and maternal mortality, and how they compare with the WHO definitions, see The DHS Program YouTube video series on

Maternal and Pregnancy-Related Mortality, including:

·        Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) Indicator Snapshot

·        Differences Between Maternal and Pregnancy-Related Mortality

·        Interpreting Trends in Pregnancy-Related Mortality

 

In addition, The DHS Program made changes to the Adult and Maternal Mortality Module in order to collect a more complete list of all siblings of respondents.  The changes include asking more questions to capture information about siblings who may have died, live elsewhere, or have a different father but the same mother. See the Adult and Maternal Mortality Module in the DHS Questionnaire Modules at https://www.dhsprogram.com/publications/publication-DHSQM-DHS-Questionnaires-and-Manuals.cfm.

 

In DHS-IV and earlier surveys, siblings whose maternal status at the time of death were unknown to the respondent or were missing in the data set were allocated to maternal deaths in the proportion they were to deaths of any maternal status. For each age group of siblings, the number of deaths of known maternal status was divided by the number of deaths of any status to get the proportion of maternal deaths. This proportion was then multiplied by the number of deaths of unknown status to calculate the number of deaths to add to the known maternal deaths to get the total number of maternal deaths in each age group.

 

Also, in DHS-IV and earlier surveys, maternal deaths of sisters 50 years and older were added to the number of maternal deaths of sisters 45-49 years.

 

References

 

Alkema, L., et al. 2015. “Global, regional, and national levels and trends in maternal mortality between 1990 and 2015, with scenario-based projections to 2030: a systematic analysis by the UN Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter-Agency Group.” The Lancet. Volume 387, Issue 10017, p462-474, January 30, 2016.

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(15)00838-7/fulltext

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2815%2900838-7

 

Assaf, S., L. Horton, M. Bornstein, and T. Pullum. 2017. Levels and Trends of Maternal and Child Health Indicators in 11 Middle East and North African Countries. DHS Comparative Report No. 46. Rockville, Maryland, USA: ICF. https://www.dhsprogram.com/publications/publication-CR46-Comparative-Reports.cfm

 

Hanley, J.A., Hagen, C.A. and Shiferaw, T. “Confidence intervals and sample size calculations for the sisterhood method of estimating maternal mortality.” Studies in Family Planning 27(4) July/August 1996.

 

Moultrie T.A., R.E. Dorrington, A.G. Hill, K. Hill, I.M. Timæus and B. Zaba (eds). 2013. Tools for Demographic Estimation. Paris: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population.

http://demographicestimation.iussp.org/content/estimation-adult-mortality-sibling-histories

 

Pullum, T., S. Assaf, and S. Staveteig. 2017. Comparisons of DHS Estimates of Fertility and Mortality with Other Estimates. DHS Methodological Reports No. 21. Rockville, Maryland, USA: ICF. https://www.dhsprogram.com/publications/publication-MR21-Methodological-Reports.cfm

 

Rutenberg, N. and Sullivan, J.M. Direct and indirect estimates of maternal mortality from the sisterhood method. IRD/Macro International Inc., Washington DC, 1991.

 

Stanton, Cynthia, Noureddine Abderrahim, and Kenneth Hill. 1997. DHS maternal mortality indicators: An assessment of data quality and implications for data use. DHS Analytical Reports No. 4. Calverton, Maryland, USA: Macro International. https://www.dhsprogram.com/publications/publication-AR4-Analytical-Studies.cfm

 

Trussell J. and Rodriguez G. (1990) “A Note On the Sisterhood Estimation of Maternal Mortality.” Studies in Family Planning, 21, 6: 344-346.

 

WHO/UNICEF. 1997. The sisterhood method for estimating maternal mortality: Guidance notes for potential users. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/1997/WHO_RHT_97.28.pdf

 

WHO/UNICEF. The Sisterhood method to estimate maternal mortality. Report of a technical meeting, 5-6 December 1996.

 

WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, World Bank Group and the United Nations Population Division. 2015. Trends in maternal mortality: 1990 to 2015.

http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/monitoring/maternal-mortality-2015/en/

 

Resources

 

DHS-7 Tabulation plan: Tables MM.4 and C.10

 

API Indicator IDs: MM_MMRO_W_PMR, MM_MMRO_W_MMR, MM_MMRO_W_LTP, MM_MMRO_W_LTR
(API link, STATcompiler link)

 

SDG Indicator 3.1.1: Maternal mortality ratio

WHO 100 Core Health Indicators: Maternal mortality ratio

MICS6 Indicator TM.21: Maternal mortality ratio

 

WHO. Maternal mortality ratio: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/statistics/indmaternalmortality/en/

 

The DHS Program YouTube video series:

Maternal and Pregnancy-Related Mortality

https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLagqLv-gqpTO6YQasXjBnRvPGJpB6jePf

·        Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) Indicator Snapshot: https://youtu.be/Z_VraFDfGxQ

·        Differences Between Maternal and Pregnancy-Related Mortality: https://youtu.be/HPT2usn0v-o

·        Interpreting Trends in Pregnancy-Related Mortality: https://youtu.be/imJq-XmC3e4

 

 


Lifetime risk of pregnancy-related death and maternal death

 

Definition

 

1)     Lifetime risk of pregnancy-related death: The probability of a 15-year-old girl eventually dying from a pregnancy-related cause, assuming she is subjected throughout her lifetime to the risks of pregnancy-related death estimated for the population.

2)     Lifetime risk of maternal death: The probability of a 15-year-old girl eventually dying from a maternal cause, assuming she is subjected throughout her lifetime to the risks of maternal death estimated for the population.

 

Coverage:

Population base: Women age 15-49 years (IR file)

Time period: Seven-year periods of time preceding the survey, excluding the month of interview. Typically 0-6 years preceding the survey (v008-1 to v008-84), but other time periods may also be calculated such as 7-13 years, 0-13 years, 0-10 years preceding the survey

 

See below for the calculation of the lifetime risk of pregnancy-related or maternal death.

 

Variables: IR file.

v008

CMC Date of interview

mm1

Sex of sibling

mm2

Survival status of sibling

mm4

Sibling's date of birth (CMC)

mm8

Date of death of sibling (CMC)

mm9

Sibling's death and pregnancy

mm12

Amount of time between sibling's delivery and death

mm16

Sibling's death due to violence or accident

v005

Women's individual sample weight

 

Calculation

 

See Age-specific pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rates, and total pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rate for the calculation of these rates, and Pregnancy-related mortality ratio and maternal mortality ratio for the calculation of the PRMR and MMR.

 

The lifetime risk of pregnancy-related death or maternal death is calculated as 1-(1-PRMR)TFR or 1-(1-MMR)TFR, respectively, where TFR represents the total fertility rate for the seven years preceding the survey. See Total Fertility Rate in Chapter 5.

 

The total fertility rate is calculated for the same time period as for the pregnancy-related mortality rate and the maternal mortality rate.

 

Handling of Missing Values

 

See Handling of Missing Values for Age-specific pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rates, and total pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rate.

 

Notes and Considerations

 

See Notes and Considerations for Age-specific pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rates, and total pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rate.

 

Changes over Time

 

See Changes over Time for Age-specific pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rates, and total pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rate.

 

References

 

See References for Age-specific pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rates, and total pregnancy-related and maternal mortality rate.

 

Resources

 

DHS-7 Tabulation plan: Tables MM.4 and C.10

 

API Indicator IDs: MM_MMRO_W_LTP, MM_MMRO_W_LTR
(API link, STATcompiler link)