## Participation in Decision Making

### Percent distribution of currently married women and men by person who usually makes decisions about various issues

#### Definition

Percent distribution of currently married women (or men) age 15-49 by person who usually makes decisions about:

1)     Own health care.

2)     Large household purchases.

3)     Visits to family or relatives.

##### Coverage:

Population base: Currently married women (or men) and currently married men age 15-49 (IR file, MR file)

Time period: Current status at time of survey

Numerators:

Number of currently married women (or men) age 15-49 by person who usually makes decisions about:

1)     Own health care (women: v743a; men: mv743a)

2)     Large household purchases (women: v743b; men: mv743b)

3)     Visits to family or relatives (women: v743d)

Denominator: Number of currently married women (or men) age 15-49 (women: v502 = 1; men: mv502 = 1)

Variables: IR file, MR file.

 v743a Person who should have greater say: respondent's health care (women) v743b Person who should have greater say: large household purchases (women) v743d Person who usually decides on visits to family or relatives (women) v005 Women's sample weight mv743a Person who should have greater say: respondent's health care (men) mv743b Person who should have greater say: large household purchases (men) mv005 Men's sample weight

#### Calculation

Numerators divided by the denominator multiplied by 100.

#### Handling of Missing Values

Missing values for person who usually makes decisions about each of the issues is included in a separate category in the percent distribution.

#### Notes and Considerations

The question on who makes decisions about visits to family or relatives is only asked to women so does not apply for men.

#### Changes over Time

When these questions were first introduced into the DHS standard questionnaire, they were asked from both married and unmarried women. From about 2004, the questions were restricted to only currently married women. In addition, till about 2014, women were also asked who usually made decisions about making daily household purchases. This decision item was removed from the questionnaire in the 2014 questionnaire revision.

From about 2004, the standard Man’s Questionnaire had a question that asked men “In a couple who do you think should have the greater say in each of the following decisions: the husband, the wife, or both equally” followed by five different types of decisions. This set of questions was asked of both married and unmarried men, and was meant to capture men’s gender role attitudes and not what actually happens in a household. In the 2014 revision of the questionnaire, this set of questions was dropped and was replaced by the same questions that are asked of women on who usually makes decisions in the household. As for women, the questions were restricted to only currently married men.

#### References

Hanmer, L., and J. Klugman. 2016 "Exploring women's agency and empowerment in developing countries: Where do we stand?." Feminist Economics 22, no. 1: 237-263.

Jennings, L., M. Na, M. Cherewick, M. Hindin, B. Mullany, and S. Ahmed. 2014. "Women’s empowerment and male involvement in antenatal care: analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in selected African countries." BMC pregnancy and childbirth 14, no. 1: 297.

Kishor, S. and L. Subaiya. 2008. Understanding Women’s Empowerment: A Comparative Analysis of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Data. DHS Comparative Reports No. 20. Calverton, Maryland, USA: Macro International Inc. https://dhsprogram.com/publications/publication-cr20-comparative-reports.cfm

#### Resources

DHS-7 Tabulation plan: Table 15.8

API Indicator IDs:

Women:
WE_DMKH_W_WIF, WE_DMKH_W_JNT, WE_DMKH_W_HUS, WE_DMKH_W_ELS, WE_DMKH_W_OTH, WE_DMKH_W_DKM, WE_DMKP_W_WIF, WE_DMKP_W_JNT, WE_DMKP_W_HUS, WE_DMKP_W_ELS, WE_DMKP_W_OTH, WE_DMKP_W_DKM, WE_DMKV_W_WIF, WE_DMKV_W_JNT, WE_DMKV_W_HUS, WE_DMKV_W_ELS, WE_DMKV_W_OTH, WE_DMKV_W_DKM

Men:

WE_DMKH_M_WIF, WE_DMKH_M_JNT, WE_DMKH_M_HUS, WE_DMKH_M_ELS, WE_DMKH_M_OTH, WE_DMKH_M_DKM, WE_DMKP_M_WIF, WE_DMKP_M_JNT, WE_DMKP_M_HUS, WE_DMKP_M_ELS, WE_DMKP_M_OTH, WE_DMKP_M_DKM

### Percentage of currently married women and men who usually make specific decisions either alone or jointly with their husband/wife

#### Definition

Percentage of currently married women and men age 15-49 who usually make specific decisions either alone or jointly with their husband or wife for:

1)     Own health care.

2)     Large household purchases.

3)     Visits to family or relatives.

4)     All three (or two [men]) decisions.

5)     None of the decisions.

##### Coverage:

Population base: Currently married women (or men) age 15-49 (IR file, MR file)

Time period: Current status at time of survey

Numerators:

Number of currently married women (or men) age 15-49 who usually make specific decisions alone or jointly with their husband (or wife) for:

1)     Own health care (women: v743a in 1,2; men: mv743a in 1,2)

2)     Large household purchases (women: v743b in 1,2; men: mv743b in 1,2)

3)     Visits to family or relatives (women: v743d in 1,2; men: mv743d in 1,2)

4)     All three decisions (women: v743a in 1,2 & v743b in 1,2 & v743d in 1,2; men: mv743a in 1,2 & mv743b in 1,2)

5)     None of the decisions (women: v743a ≠ 1,2 & v743b ≠ 1,2 & v743d ≠ 1,2; men: mv743a ≠ 1,2 & mv743b ≠ 1,2)

Denominator: Number of currently married women (or men) age 15-49 (women: v502 = 1; men: mv502 = 1)

Variables: IR file, MR file.

 v743a Person who usually decides on respondent's health care (women) v743b Person who usually decides on large household purchases (women) v743d Person who usually decides on visits to family or relatives (women) v005 Women's sample weight mv743a Person who usually decides on respondent's health care (men) mv743b Person who usually decides on large household purchases (men) mv743d Person who usually decides on visits to family or relatives (men) mv005 Men's sample weight

#### Calculation

Numerators divided by the denominator multiplied by 100.

#### Handling of Missing Values

Missing values on who usually make specific decisions are assumed to be someone other than the respondent and are excluded from the numerators for the first four indicators but may be included in numerator for the fifth indicator.

#### References

Kishor, S., and L. Subaiya. 2008. Understanding Women’s Empowerment: A Comparative

Analysis of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Data. DHS Comparative Reports No. 20. Calverton,

Maryland, USA: Macro International Inc.

https://www.dhsprogram.com/publications/publication-CR20-Comparative-Reports.cfm

#### Resources

DHS-7 Tabulation plan: Tables 15.9.1 and 15.9.2

Kishor, S., Ed. 2005. A Focus on Gender: Collected Papers on Gender Using DHS Data. Calverton,

Maryland, USA: ORC Macro.

https://www.dhsprogram.com/publications/publication-OD32-Other-Documents.cfm

API Indicator IDs:

Women: WE_DMAK_W_OHC, WE_DMAK_W_MPC, WE_DMAK_W_FAM, WE_DMAK_W_3DC, WE_DMAK_W_NON

Men: WE_DMAK_M_OHC, WE_DMAK_M_MPC, WE_DMAK_M_2DC, WE_DMAK_M_NON