This report examines how school attendance and nutritional status differ between orphaned and fostered children and between children of HIV-infected parents and non HIV-infected parents in Kenya. The analysis is based on data on 2,756 children age 0-4 and 4,172 children age 6-14 included in the 2003 Kenya DHS. Results show that orphaned and fostered children age 6-14 are significantly less likely to be attending school than non-orphaned, non-fostered children of HIV-negative parents. Children of HIV-infected parents are significantly less likely to be attending school, more likely to be malnourished and less likely to receive treatment for ARI and diarrhea than children of non-HIV-infected parents. Children of non-HIV-infected single mothers are more disadvantaged in nutrition, health care, and school than children who live with both non-HIV-infected parents.