Publications
Browse

Browse for Publications by:

Browse for Journal Articles based on DHS data by:

orange publication summary banner small

Document Type
Working Papers
Publication Topic(s)
HIV
Country(s)
Zimbabwe
Language
English
Author(s)
Taruberekera et al and ICF Macro, Calverton, Maryland, USA
Publication Date
February 2010
Publication ID
WPZ3

Order a Hard Copy: Please use electronic copies of DHS publications whenever possible. Hardcopies of publications are intended primarily for those in developing countries where internet connections are limited or unavailable.

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with HIV transmission among HIV-positive adults in Zimbabwe. The study analyzed data collected from a nationally representative sample of adults in the 2005-06 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS), including respondents from whom blood samples for HIV testing were collected. All analysis in this study was limited to HIV-positive women and men age 15-49 who have ever had sex. Our findings show that only about one-fourth of HIV-positive adults age 15-49 were previously tested for HIV and received test results. HIV-positive women were more likely than men to have been previously tested and received results (27% of women versus 20% of men, p<0.05). About two-thirds of HIV-positive adults were currently in a union, with men more likely than women to be in union (74% of men versus 58% of women, p<0.05). Overall, 80% of HIV-positive adults were sexually active in the last 12 months (90% of men and 74% of women, p<0.05). In addition, 42% of all HIV-positive adults reported three or more lifetime sexual partners, while 17% of all HIV-positive adults reported having sex with a non-spousal sexual partner in the past year. Despite high levels of sexual activity among HIV-positive adults, levels of condom use were low. Among HIV-positive adults who had sex in the last 12 months, 83% of last sexual acts were unprotected, and among HIV-positive adults who had sex with a non-spousal partner in the past year, less than half (48%) used condoms. Only 14% of HIV-positive men reported consistent condom use with all most recent sexual partners, while only about one in every two HIV-positive adults (47%) reported currently using any contraceptive method. These and other study findings suggest a substantial need for more focus on positive prevention, such as scaling up HIV testing and counseling services, including provider-initiated testing and counseling. The results also highlight the importance of promoting condom use among HIV-positive adults, including in marriages in which the partners are discordant in HIV-status.