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Document Type
Other Documents
Publication Topic(s)
Domestic Violence, Gender, Women's Empowerment
Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Cambodia, India, Dominican Republic, Haiti
Sunita Kishor (Ed.) of ORC Macro, Calverton, Maryland, USA
Publication Date
August 2005
Publication ID

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Small PDF IconFront Matter (PDF, 269K)
Small PDF IconIntroduction (PDF, 231K)
Small PDF IconTwo Concepts of Female Empowerment: Some Leads from DHS Data on Women's Status and Reproductive Health (PDF, 354K)
Small PDF IconWomen's Decisionmaking and Child Health: Familial and Social Hierarchies (PDF, 215K)
Small PDF IconVillage in the City: Autonomy and Maternal Health-Seeking Among Slum Population of Mumbai (PDF, 245K)
Small PDF IconWomen's Autonomy, Status, and Nutrition in Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Malawi (PDF, 281K)
Small PDF IconCondom Use in Uganda and Zimbabwe: Exploring the Influence of Gendered Access to Resources and Couple-Level Dynamics (PDF, 367K)
Small PDF IconSummary and Conclusions (PDF, 321K)
Small PDF IconSummary of Findings (PDF, 30K)
Order a Hard Copy: Please use electronic copies of DHS publications whenever possible. Hardcopies of publications are intended primarily for those in developing countries where internet connections are limited or unavailable.


This report presents a collection of six working papers on the dynamics of gender in developing countries. The papers, commissioned by the MEASURE DHS project, were prepared by researchers recognized for their work in the areas of demography, reproductive health, and gender. The analyses presented are based on data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) project. Funding was provided by the U.S. Agency for International Development (US AID). A common theme of several of the papers is the struggle to define women’s empowerment and/or autonomy and then to adequately measure it. Five of the working papers in this volume focus on the gender questions in the core DHS questionnaire, particularly the questions on household decision making and women’s autonomy and empowerment, and their relationship to different population, health, and nutrition (PHN) outcomes of interest. The last paper examines whether PHN outcomes of interest vary by women’s experience of domestic violence. The PHN outcomes studied by the papers include child health, nutrition, mortality, women’s nutrition, maternal care and reproductive health, as well as condom use and thetheir risk of sexually transmitted infections and condom uses.