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Coverage, timeliness, and determinants of immunization completion in Pakistan: Evidence from the Demographic and Health Survey (2006–07)
Authors: Zaidi SM, Khowaja S, Kumar Dharma V, Khan AJ, Chandir S.
Source: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 10(6):1712-20. doi: 10.4161/hv.28621.
Topic(s): Immunization
Country: Asia
Published: APR 2014
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Immunization coverage data and determinants for completion are not well described for Pakistan. This study determines immunization coverage rates and timeliness based on the 2006-07 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and identifies determinants for completion of immunizations. METHODS: DHS data from 9177 randomly selected households from across Pakistan were analyzed to assess immunization coverage and timeliness for children aged 0-5 years, and to investigate determinants of immunization completion through logistic regressions. RESULTS: The proportion of children immunized for a third dose of the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV3) was 80.3%, and combination diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines (DTP3) was 55.9%. Measles coverage was 62.5%. Late immunizations were most likely to occur for third doses of the OPV (65.5%) and DTP series (65.5%). Early doses were most likely to be administered for measles (21.9%). The proportion of children not immunized for any vaccine was 6.2%. Receiving a dose of maternal tetanus was a major determinant for immunization completion for OPV3 (OR 1.35, 95% CI: 1.14-1.60), DTP3 (OR 2.54, 95% CI: 2.13-3.02), and measles (OR 2.78, 95% CI: 2.27-3.40). Other independent variables associated with improved immunization completion included higher household wealth and maternal education. CONCLUSION: Poor routine immunization coverage and timeliness were identified through the DHS in Pakistan. Encouraging maternal tetanus uptake among women of child-bearing age and greater integration of immunization services with antenatal care may help improve childhood immunization completion. KEYWORDS: Demographic Health Survey; Pakistan; immunization coverage; immunization determinants; immunization timeliness