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Socioeconomic factors effecting polio vaccination in Pakistan
Authors: Sheeba Arooj, Sitwat Ali, Nimra Baber, Atif Abbasi, and Midhat Ali
Source: Health, 5(5):892-897; DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.55117
Topic(s): Child health
Children under five
Country: Asia
Published: MAY 2013
Abstract: Background: Child vaccinations are one of most cost effective health programs that have weakened a number of child morbidity and mortality rate all over the world. Pakistan is considered one of the major country of the world, where people especially children are bound by many harmful infectious diseases like polio, hepatitis, viral infections etc. The effectiveness of routine childhood immunization programs relies on multiple factors. Socio-economic determinants have the potential to affect immunization programs. The purpose of the present study was to determine the association between socio-economic factors and polio vaccination coverage among children in Pakistan. Methods: The study used data from the Pakistan demographic health survey (PDHS 2006-07 N 10023). The study focused on respondents who had births in last five years. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to determine the association between variables. Spss version 20 was used for data analysis. A number of socioeconomic variables were used in chi square & binary logistic regression model to check out their association with polio vaccination coverage. Results: Study shows that most dominant factors associated with polio vaccination coverage were region that is NWFP OR 3.48 (odd ratio) with 95% confidence interval (C-I 2.06 & 3.13) & Punjab OR 2.54 (C-I 2.062 & 3.131), residence urban OR 1.626 (C-I 1.451 & 1.822), sex of child male OR 1.125 (C-I 1.008 & 1.256), age of mother 25 - 34 years OR 1.11 (C-I 0.978 & 1.276), wealth index rich OR 2.98 (C-I 2.55 & 3.48), age of child 4 - 5 years OR 1.17 (C-I 0.899 & 1.538), mother’s education higher OR 2.06 (C-I 1.776 & 2.411), father’s education higher OR 1.399 (C-I 1.221 & 1.203) ,father’s occupation professional OR 1.27 (C-I 0.929 & 1.737). Conclusion: In developing countries like Pakistan most of the children remain unvaccinated because of many socio-economic constraints. Poor marginalized people have a low awareness regarding the importance of polio vaccine. Along with social hierarchies, educational attainment of parents is a strong indicator of defining awareness level regarding vaccination. KEYWORDS: Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey; Polio Vaccination; Socioeconomic Factors; Children Less than 5 Years; Odd Ratio