|Complementary feeding indicators and determinants of poor feeding practices in Indonesia: a secondary analysis of 2007 Demographic and Health Survey data|
||Ng CS, Dibley MJ, and Agho KE
||Public Health Nutrition, 15(5):827-39. doi: 10.1017/S1368980011002485.
The present study aimed to assess complementary feeding practices and identify the potential risk factors associated with inappropriate complementary feeding in Indonesia for a nationally representative sample of births from 2004 to 2007.
The data source for the analysis was the 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey. Multiple logistic regression was performed to analyse the factors associated with complementary feeding, using individual-, household- and community-level determinants.
Children (n 4604) aged 6-23 months.
Multivariate analysis revealed that infants from poor households were significantly less likely to be introduced to complementary feeding (adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 4.32; 95 % CI 1.46, 12.80) and meet the minimum dietary diversity (AOR = 1.76; 95 % CI 1.16, 2.68). Mother's education (AOR for no education in dietary diversity = 1.92; 95 % CI 1.09, 3.38; AOR for no education in meal frequency = 2.03; 95 % CI 1.13, 3.64; AOR for no education in acceptable diet = 3.84; 95 % CI 2.07, 7.12), residence and decreased age of the infant were negatively associated with minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and an acceptable diet. Infants aged 6-11 months were also significantly less likely to meet minimum dietary diversity (AOR = 6.36; 95 % CI 4.73, 8.56), minimum meal frequency (AOR = 2.30; 95 % CI 1.79, 2.96) and minimum acceptable diet (AOR = 2.27; 95 % CI 1.67, 3.09). All geographical regions compared with Sumatra were more likely to give the recommended meal frequency and an acceptable diet to breast-fed children.
Public health interventions to improve complementary feeding should address individual-, household- and community-level factors which significantly influence the introduction of complementary feeding. Complementary feeding intervention programmes in Indonesia should ensure that restraints on families with low socio-economic status are addressed. Infants aged 6-11 months and mothers with low education levels may also need special focus. Promotion strategies should also target the health-care delivery system and the media.