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Factors Associated with HIV Counseling and Testing among Males and Females in Ethiopia: Evidence from Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey Data
Authors: Molla Godif, Huruy Assefa, Mussie Alemayehu, and Wondowosen Terefe
Source: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research, 6:429; doi:10.4172/2155-6113.1000429
Topic(s): HIV testing
Men's health
Women's health
Country: Africa
Published: FEB 2015
Abstract: Background: HIV counseling and testing is one of the key strategies in the HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs in Ethiopia. However utilization of this service is very low. The aim of the study was to assess and compare factors associated with HIV counseling and testing service utilization among Ethiopian males and females. Methods: The study utilized data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2011, which was a cross-sectional survey conducted on a nationally representative sample. Using cluster sampling, 14110 males aged 15-59 years and 16,834 females aged 15-49 were selected from all the 9 administrative regions and 2 administrative cities of Ethiopia. Descriptive analysis was done and chi-square test was used to test the association of each independent variable with the dependent variable. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify potential factors associated with HIV testing service utilization. Results: Generally, 42.5% male and 41.9% female participants had ever been tested and counseled for HIV at least once. Education level, wealth index, area of residence, knowledge about HIV/AIDS and having no stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS were found to be strongly and positively associated with HIV testing service utilization in both male and female genders. HIV test rate was higher among younger men and women (aged = 34 years), rich in income, urban residents, exposed to mass media and those of educated secondary and above. Conclusions: HIV testing service utilization among male and females in Ethiopia is low. HIV/AIDS-related stigma, HIV related knowledge, place of residence, educational level, marital status, wealth index, and media exposure were major factors affecting HIV testing service utilization among males and females in the country. Keywords: HIV; Counseling and testing; Males; Females; Ethiopia