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Measles Immunization and Vitamin A for Prevention of Pneumonia in Indonesia
Authors: Ratno Widoyo
Source: Kesmas: National Public Health Journal, 11(1):48; DOI:
Topic(s): Child health
Children under five
Vitamin A
Country: Asia
Published: AUG 2016
Abstract: Pneumonia is the major cause of child death in Indonesia after diarrhea. Increasing coverage of measles, pertusis, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) and Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) immunization substantially can control pneumonia. Spn and Hib vaccines have not been included in category of mandatory immunization in Indonesia. Measles vaccine has more direct effect on prevention of pneumonia than pertusis vaccine. Providing immunization followed by providing vitamin A will increase the specific antibody titer among children. This study aimed to determine effects of measles vaccine and vitamin A to pneumonia incidence among toddlers. Method of study was cross sectional using 13,062 data of children drawn from 2012 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey. Data were analyzed using poisson regression test. Analysis results showed that prevalence of pneumonia among Indonesian children was 5.4%, measles immunization coverage was 82.57%, and vitamin A supplementation coverage was 74.9%. Furthermore, providing measles immunization and vitamin A could prevent pneumonia incidence among toddlers (12 – 59 months old) up to 26.5%. Providing measles immunization then followed by providing vitamin A can be used as a preventive action in attempt to decrease pneumonia incidence.