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An examination of the maternal social determinants influencing under-5 mortality in Nigeria: Evidence from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic Health Survey
Authors: Blackstone SR, Nwaozuru U, and Iwelunmor J
Source: Global Public Health, 12(6):744-756. doi: 10.1080/17441692.2016.1211166
Topic(s): Childhood mortality
Children under five
Maternal health
Country: Africa
Published: JUN 2017
Abstract: Nigeria is the second largest contributor to child (under-5) mortality in the world, with an average of 128 child deaths per 1000 live births, and is not on track to meet the Millennium Development Goals of reducing childhood mortality rates to 64 per 1000. Data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) report were analysed to explore the relationship between structural and intermediary maternal characteristics and likelihood of childhood mortality. Binary logistic regressions for the first three reported births were conducted with childhood mortality (e.g. death before 59 months of age) as a dependent variable. Maternal characteristics investigated included age, education, region, antenatal care, and breastfeeding. Significant factors for birth 1 included region of residence, breastfeeding, literacy, wealth, number of children, and antenatal care. For second birth, not breastfeeding and attending antenatal care with a nurse were negatively associated with survival. For third birth, wealth and number of children were positively associated with survival. The results point to some maternal characteristics that may be influential in childhood mortality. However, community and systems level factors should be accounted for in interventions, as maternal characteristics do not offer a full explanation for why children are dying so young in Nigeria. KEYWORDS: MDG goals; Nigeria; Under-5 mortality; intermediary factors; maternal factors; structural factors