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LLIN Ownership, Utilization, and Malaria Prevalence: An Outlook at the 2015 Nigeria Malaria Indicator Survey
Authors: Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh, Abdullahi Saddiq, and Akubue Augustine Uchenna
Source: Scientific Research, 5(1), Article ID:81961,3 pages; DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104280
Topic(s): Insecticidetreated mosquito nets (ITNs)
Country: Africa
Published: JAN 2018
Abstract: Background: Malaria is a disease caused by an infected female Anopheles mosquito. Nigeria, one of the two epicenters of malaria transmission across the globe, contributes to 40 percent global malaria burden. The disease, considered a global priority, has an annual global death toll of around 400,000 people. The global reduction in malaria burden which is the result of direct scale-up of one of the core malaria interventions using the insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), has prevented around 663 million cases of malaria in the sub- Saharan Africa. The most cost-effective evidenced-based strategy against malaria and its unwanted consequences is sleeping under the LLINs; studies have proven this measure to confer adequate protection to the mother and her unborn child. Methods: Quantitative cross-sectional study using secondary data obtained during the 2015 Nigeria malaria indicator survey. The eligible participants in the survey were pregnant women and caregivers who had at least a child under the age of five years. The survey was conducted in October and November 2015 across the thirty-six states of the country including the Federal Capital Territory. Using SPSS version 24, correlation and regression analyses were run to check for any significant correlation between LLIN use and malaria prevalence. Results: The Pearson correlation is 0.866 (a = 0.026, p < 0.05) 2-tailed test, showing positive linear relationships between LLIN use and malaria prevalence across the six geo-political zones in 2015. The ANOVA test shows F value 21.510 (a = 0.017, p < 0.05) and Regression analysis, R-square 0.935; these further shows a significant correlation between LLIN use and malaria prevalence. In favour of the Alternative Hypothesis, the Null Hypothesis was rejected. However, LLIN ownership and malaria prevalence shows weak correlation with a Pearson correlation of 0.635, (a = 0.175, p < 0.05) 2-tailed test. Conclusion: The outcome of this study once again underscores LLIN as an important prevention tool against malaria and its unwanted consequences. The positive linear correlation on LLIN use and the decline in malaria prevalence underscores the need for governments at all levels to ease up LLIN access to reduce any intervention gaps to further reduce malaria morbidity and mortality and achieve malaria elimination across the country.