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Multilevel Analysis of Determinants of Anemia Prevalence among Children Aged 6-59 Months in Ethiopia: Classical and Bayesian Approaches
Authors: Kawo KN, Asfaw ZG, and Yohannes N
Source: Anemia, 2018:3087354; DOI: 10.1155/2018/3087354
Topic(s): Anemia
Child health
Children under five
Country: Africa
Published: JUN 2018
Abstract: Background: Anemia is a widely spread public health problem and affects individuals at all levels. However, there is a considerable regional variation in its distribution. Objective: Thus, this study aimed to assess and model the determinants of prevalence of anemia among children aged 6-59 months in Ethiopia. Data: Cross-sectional data from Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey was used for the analysis. It was implemented by the Central Statistical Agency from 27 December 2010 through June 2011 and the sampling technique employed was multistage. Method: The statistical models that suit the hierarchical data such as variance components model, random intercept model, and random coefficients model were used to analyze the data. Likelihood and Bayesian approaches were used to estimate both fixed effects and random effects in multilevel analysis. Result: This study revealed that the prevalence of anemia among children aged between 6 and 59 months in the country was around 42.8%. The multilevel binary logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the variation of predictor variables of the prevalence of anemia among children aged between 6 and 59 months. Accordingly, it has been identified that the number of children under five in the household, wealth index, age of children, mothers' current working status, education level, given iron pills, size of child at birth, and source of drinking water have a significant effect on prevalence of anemia. It is found that variances related to the random term were statistically significant implying that there is variation in prevalence of anemia across regions. From the methodological aspect, it was found that random intercept model is better compared to the other two models in fitting the data well. Bayesian analysis gave consistent estimates with the respective multilevel models and additional solutions as posterior distribution of the parameters. Conclusion: The current study confirmed that prevalence of anemia among children aged 6-59 months in Ethiopia was severe public health problem, where 42.8% of them are anemic. Thus, stakeholders should pay attention to all significant factors mentioned in the analysis of this study but wealth index/improving household income and availability of pure drinking water are the most influential factors that should be improved anyway.