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What is causing high polio vaccine dropout among Pakistani children?
Authors: Imran W, Abbas F, and Javed SA
Source: Public Health, 164:16-25; DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2018.07.008
Topic(s): Child health
Country: Asia
Published: AUG 2018
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Although the antipolio drive is undertaken across Pakistan, there are still children who have not received any oral polio vaccine or are unable to complete recommended doses of polio vaccine. This study aims at empirically analyzing the associated factors with the no oral polio vaccination (OPV) and OPV dropout groups of children in Pakistan. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Data were obtained from the three waves of Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey of children aged between 12 and 23 months (1990-1991: n = 1214; 2006-2007: n = 1522; 2012-2013: n = 2074). Children who received no OPV and those who drop out of polio vaccination (OPV1-OPV3) were considered as outcome variables. The bivariate relationship of outcome variable with each socio-economic, demographic, and spatial variable is estimated with a P-value of <0.01. For both no OPV and OPV dropout children, we used logistic regression analysis separately. RESULTS: The percentage of children aged 12-23 months who dropped out of OPV1-OPV3 vaccination was about 76% in the year 1990-1991; 21% in 2006-2007, and 17.5% in 2012-2013 at the national level. Among all indicators, provinces, rural versus urban residence, the mother's age at marriage, the child's birth place (home versus hospital), parental education, and household wealth status are significant predictors of no OPV and/or OPV dropout in Pakistan. Among provinces, Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), and Sindh are the lagging provinces. CONCLUSION: Improving the socio-economic status of women helps decrease the chance of polio dropout and thus improves service delivery and program implementation. KEYWORDS: Childhood immunization; Demographic and health surveys; Pakistan; Polio dropout; Polio vaccination; Sociodemographics