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Individual- and Community-Level Determinants of Antenatal HIV Testing in Zimbabwe
Authors: Martin Marufu Gazimbi, and Monica Akinyi Magadi
Source: Journal of Biosocial Science, Published online, page 1-22; DOI: 10.1017/S002193201800007X
Topic(s): Antenatal care
HIV testing
Maternal health
Country: Africa
Published: MAR 2018
Abstract: This study contributes to the dialogue on the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) through the use of HIV and antenatal care (ANC) integrated services. The determinants of antenatal HIV testing in Zimbabwe were explored. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to data for 8471 women from 406 clusters who gave birth in the 5 years preceding Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2005/6 and 2010/11. The uptake of antenatal HIV testing was found to be determined by a wide range of individual-level factors relating to women’s economic and demographic status, as well as HIV-related factors, including HIV awareness and stigma within the community. Important individual-level enabling and perceived need factors included high socioeconomic status, not having observed HIV-related stigma and knowledge of HIV status (based on a previous HIV test), such that these groups of individuals had a significantly higher likelihood of being tested for HIV during pregnancy than their counterparts of lower socioeconomic status, and who had observed HIV-related stigma or did not know their HIV status. The results further revealed that community HIV awareness is important for improving antenatal HIV testing, while stigma is associated with reduced testing uptake. Most contextual community-level factors were not found to have much effect on the uptake of antenatal HIV testing. Therefore, policies should focus on individual-level predisposing and enabling factors to improve the uptake of antenatal HIV testing in Zimbabwe.