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Does it really matter where you live? A multilevel analysis of factors associated with missed opportunities for vaccination in sub-Saharan Africa
Authors: Uthman OA, Sambala EZ, Adamu AA, Ndwandwe D, Wiyeh AB, Olukade T, Bishwajit G, Yaya S, Okwo-Bele JM, and Wiysonge CS
Source: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, Online first; DOI: 10.1080/21645515.2018.1504524
Topic(s): Immunization
Country: Africa
  Multiple African Countries
Published: JUL 2018
Abstract: There is an urgent need to examine the magnitude and factors responsible for missed opportunities for vaccination, to rapidly achieve national immunization targets. The objective of the study was to examine the influence of individual, neighbourhood and country level socioeconomic position on missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) in Sub-Saharan Africa. We used multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data collected between 2007 and 2016 in sub-Saharan Africa. We analysed data on 43,637 children aged 12 to 23 months (Level 1) nested within 15,122 neighbourhoods (Level 2) from 35 countries (Level 3). After adjustment for individual-, neighbourhood- and country-level factors, the following appeared as significant risk factors for increased odds of MOV: high birth order, high number of under-five children in the house, poorest household, lack of maternal education, lack of media access, and living in poorer neighbourhood. According to the intra-country and intra-neighbourhood correlation coefficient, 18.4% and 37.4% of the variance in odds of MOV could be attributed to the country and neighbourhood level factors, respectively; and if a child moved to another country or neighbourhood with a higher probability of MOV, the median increase in their odds of MOV would be 2.47 and 2.56 fold respectively. This study has revealed that the risk of missed opportunities for vaccination in sub-Saharan Africa is influenced by not only individual factors but also by compositional factors such as family's financial capacity, place of birth and upbringing. KEYWORDS: missed opportunity for vaccination; sub-Saharan Africa