|Factors associated with perinatal mortality in Nepal: evidence from Nepal demographic and health survey 2001–2016|
||Pramesh Raj Ghimire, Kingsley E. Agho, Andre M. N. Renzaho, Monjura K. Nisha, Michael Dibley, and Camille Raynes-Greenow
||BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 19: 88; DOI: 10.1186/s12884-019-2234-6
Perinatal mortality is a devastating pregnancy outcome affecting millions of families in many low and middle-income countries including Nepal. This paper examined the more distant factors associated with perinatal mortality in Nepal.
A sample of 23,335 pregnancies >?28?weeks’ gestation from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey datasets for the period (2001–2016) was analysed. Perinatal Mortality (PM) is defined as the sum of stillbirth (fetal deaths in pregnancies >?28?weeks’ gestation) and early neonatal mortality (deaths within the first week of life), while Extended Perinatal Mortality (EPM) is denoted as the sum of stillbirth and neonatal mortality (deaths within the first 28?days of life). Rates of PM and EPM were calculated. Logistic regression generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM) that adjusted for clustering and sampling weight was used to examine the factor associated with perinatal mortality.
Over the study period, the PMR was 42 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 39, 44] per 1000 births for the five-year before each survey; while corresponding EPMR was 49 (95% CI, 46, 51) per 1000 births. Multivariable analyses revealed that women residing in the mountains, who did not use contraceptives, women aged 15–18?years or 19–24?years, and women having no education were associated with increased PM and EPM. The study also identified households using biomass as cooking fuel, and households who reported unimproved sanitation or open defecation were significantly more likely to experience PM and EPM.
Interventions aimed to improve use of contraceptives, and reduce biomass as a source of cooking fuel are needed to achieve the recommended target of 12 perinatal deaths per 1000 births by 2030.
Extended perinatal mortality