|Determinants of long-lasting insecticidal net ownership and utilization in malaria transmission regions: evidence from Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Surveys|
||Malaria Journal, 18: 278; DOI: 10.1186/s12936-019-2912-x
Health care utilization
Insecticidetreated mosquito nets (ITNs)
Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) were first introduced in 2010 as a vector control intervention, to complement indoor residual spraying, to reduce malaria transmission in Zimbabwe. The objective of this study was to investigate factors that were associated with LLIN ownership and utilization among households in malaria transmission regions of Zimbabwe.
A secondary analysis of cross sectional data from the Zimbabwe demographic and health survey (ZDHS) conducted in 2010 and 2015 surveys round was conducted. The analysis used household-level datasets from across the country to generate evidence for the study. Univariate analysis was used to yield descriptive statistics. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to calculate wealth quintiles. Binary logistic regression approach was used to identify determinants of LLIN ownership and utilization after controlling for other factors. Data analyses were conducted using STATA version 14 software.
There were no major changes in demographic characteristics of households sampled between 2010 and 2015 survey cycles. LLIN ownership increased significantly by 42 percentage points from 2010 to 2015. There was a tremendous increase in universal coverage of LLINs between 2010 and 2015. The overall utilization levels of LLINs among children under-5 years decreased by 11 percentage points between 2010 and 2015. LLIN usage amongst households followed the same trend with that of the under-fives. Using logistic regression model for 2015 data, region/province, type of place of residence, availability of electricity, radio, roof type, gender of head of household, having telephone, type of cooking fuel, presence of mobile phone, owning a bank account, IRS spraying in the previous 12 months, wealth index, and satellite television decorder were independently associated with net ownership among households. Type of place of residence, age of household head, type of cooking fuel, IRS in previous 12 months, and pregnancy were associated with LLIN utilization.
This study revealed increasing LLIN coverage and low usage in malaria-transmission regions of Zimbabwe. Strengthening of LLIN campaigns, social behaviour change communication (SBCC) interventions and programme routine monitoring are recommended.