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First foods: Diet quality among infants aged 6–23?months in 42 countries
Authors: Samira Choudhury, Derek D. Headey, and William A. Masters
Source: Food Policy, Online first; DOI: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2019.101762
Topic(s): Breastfeeding
Child feeding
Child health
Country: More than one region
  Multiple Regions
Published: SEP 2019
Abstract: Diet quality is closely linked to child growth and development, especially among infants aged 6–23?months who need to complement breastmilk with the gradual introduction of nutrient-rich solid foods. This paper links Demographic and Health Survey data on infant feeding to household and environmental factors for 76,641 children in 42 low- and middle-income countries surveyed in 2006–2013, providing novel stylized facts about diets in early childhood. Multivariate regressions examine the associations of household socioeconomic characteristics and community level indicators of climate and infrastructure with dietary diversity scores (DDS). Results show strong support for an infant-feeding version of Bennett's Law, as wealthier households introduce more diverse foods at earlier ages, with additional positive effects of parental education, local infrastructure and more temperate agro-climatic conditions. Associations with consumption of specific nutrient-dense foods are less consistent. Our findings imply that while income growth is indeed an important driver of diversification, there are strong grounds to also invest heavily in women’s education and food environments to improve diet quality, while addressing the impacts of climate change on livelihoods and food systems. These results reveal systematic patterns in how first foods vary across developing countries, pointing to new opportunities for research towards nutrition-smart policies to improve children’s diets. Keywords Child malnutrition; Child diets; Dietary diversity; Bennett’s law