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Overnutrition: Current scenario & combat strategies
Authors: Prashant Mathur, and Rakesh Pillai2
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Research, 149(6): 695-705; DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1703_18
Topic(s): Men's health
Women's health
Country: Asia
Published: JUN 2019
Abstract: Large population-based surveys by the Government of India and several other regional studies have reconfirmed the coexisting burden of over- and undernutrition. While time trends from the 2nd, 3rd and 4th rounds of the National Family Health Survey show declining trends in the prevalence of the underweight, it also highlights increasing rates in the overweight/obesity. Dose-response relationships with different micro- and macronutrient consumption with overweight/obesity prevalence have been established. In this context, it was attempted to identify the specific diet pattern and socio-behavioural determinants of overnutrition along with its combat strategies. This review highlights that while the proportion of chronic energy deficiency is decreasing in India, the intake of micronutrients and food groups continues to be below the recommended dietary allowance set by the Indian Council of Medical Research. Distal factors that determine the nutritional imbalance among Indians are presented under (i) household contextual factors, (ii) peer and socio-cultural influencers, and (iii) business and neighbourhood environment. Accumulation of such factors increases the density of obesogenic environment around individuals. Further, the review offers action points at individual, society and policy levels, presented in a 'logframe matrix' for bringing convergence actions across sectors in consultation with programme managers from different ministries/departments. KEYWORDS: Childhood obesity; dietary pattern; dual burden; non-communicable diseases; nutritional imbalance; whole of society