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Trends and spatial distributions of HIV prevalence in Ethiopia
Authors: Getiye Dejenu Kibret, Aster Ferede, Cheru Tesema Leshargie, Fasil Wagnew, Daniel Bekele Ketema, and Animut Alebel
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 8: Article number 90; DOI: 10.1186/s40249-019-0594-9
Topic(s): HIV/AIDS
Country: Africa
Published: OCT 2019
Abstract: Background Globally, by the end of 2018, 37.9 million people were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Sub-Saharan Africa carries the highest burden with an estimated 71% of the global total. In Ethiopia, an estimated 715?404 people were living with HIV in 2015 and this increased to 722?248 in 2017. This study was to explore the trends and spatial distributions of HIV cases in Ethiopia. Methods In this study, we explored the spatial and temporal distribution of persons living with HIV in Ethiopia using data from 2005, 2011, and 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS). Geographic information system (Getis-Ord Gi* statistics) and spatial scan statistics (SaTScan) were used for exploratory and confirmatory spatial analyses respectively. Results The overall prevalence of HIV in Ethiopia unveiled inconsistent trends, with the majority of areas showing decreasing trends. Hot spot clusters exhibited in all the three surveys, which include areas where Amhara, Afar and Tigray regions share neighbourhoods. In 2005 regionally, Gambella, Addis Ababa, and Harari had the highest prevalence at 6.0, 4.7 and 3.5%, respectively. While in the 2016 survey the highest prevalence (4.8%) was observed in Gambella regional state followed by Addis Ababa (3.4%). Conclusions The distribution of HIV infection in Ethiopia is not random in all the three EDHS surveys. High clusters of HIV cases were consistently observed in Addis Ababa and neighbouring areas of the Afar Tigray and Amhara regional states and central Oromia. This analysis revealed that there are still areas which need studying with respect to the epidemic of HIV. In this regard Addis Ababa, certain areas of Amhara regional state, large areas of Afar region and central Oromia require special attention.