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Individual and community level associates of contraceptive use in Ethiopia: a multilevel mixed effects analysis
Authors: Masrie Getnet Abate, and Amare Abera Tareke
Source: Archives of Public Health, 77(1): 1-12; DOI: 10.1186/s13690-019-0371-z
Topic(s): Contraception
Family planning
Unmet need
Country: Africa
Published: OCT 2019
Abstract: Background Family planning is one of the four pillars of safe motherhood initiative to reduce maternal death in developing countries. Despite progress in contraceptive use, unmet needs are wide open and fertility remains high. Ethiopia have a higher fertility rate which contributes to maternal and child health destitution, putting pressure on the already weak health system. This study examined individual and community-level factors associated with contraceptive use in Ethiopia. Methods Data from Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2016 were used to identify individual and community level associated factors among reproductive-age women. Non-pregnant, fecund and sexually active women aged 15–49 were included. Six hundred forty-two communities and 6854 women were involved from this two-stage cluster sampled data. The analysis was done using two-level mixed-effects logistic regression to determine fixed effects of individual and community-level factors and random intercept of between characteristics. Results From the total eligible women for contraceptive use 2393 (34.9%) of them were users. Injectables were the commonest of all contraceptive methods. Various individual-level variables were associated with contraceptive use. Household wealth index, women’s age, number of living children, husband’s occupation, ever experience of a terminated pregnancy, current working status of the women, number of births in the last 3?years, and hearing of FP messages through different media were significantly associated individual-level variables after adjusting other factors. Community characteristics like region, place of residence, religion, and community-level wealth were the factors associated with contraceptive use. Conclusion Both individual and community-level characteristics were significant predictors of use of contraceptives in Ethiopian women. Besides the individual-level factors, interventions should also consider community-level associates.