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Socio-economic, Demographic and Environmental Factors Effects on Under-Five Mortality in Empowered Action Group States of India: An Evidence from NFHS-4
Authors: Sarvesh Kumar, and Damodar Sahu
Source: Public Health Research, 9(2): 23-29; DOI: 10.5923/j.phr.20190902.01
Topic(s): Child health
Childhood mortality
Children under five
Environmental health
Country: Asia
Published: JUN 2019
Abstract: Background: Globally, in both under developed and developing countries including India have experience substantial decline under-five mortality rate i.e., infant and child mortality rates due to reproductive and child health programme intervention during past two decades. In India, overall U5MR has been declined from 74 per thousand live births in 2005-06 to 50 per thousand live births in 2015-16. The Empowered Action Group (EAG) of states has very high under-five mortality as compared to Non-EAG states. The aim of the study was to identify the socio-economic, demographic and environmental factors effect on U5MR in EAG States of India. Data and Methods: The 9 EAG States NFHS-4 data had been analyzed and used for this study. The National Family Health Survey is a cross-sectional household survey conducted in year 2015-16. The survival analysis i.e., Kaplan-Meier with log-rank test and Cox-proportional hazard regression model was used to assess the effects of socio-economic, demographic and environmental factors on risk of under-five mortality. Total information of 322396 children born during past ten years preceding survey and their mother's characteristics were analyzed. Results: The result showed that under-five mortality was significantly associated with mother's age at the time of birth, sex of the child, previous birth interval, birth order, household wealth, toilet facility and cooking fuel. Children of young mother < 20 years are 4-5 times more likely to die as compared to children of mother's age 20-29 years (HR = 4.67, 95% CI: 4.17-5.20) after controlling for other factors. The risk of dying was higher among children whose mother' illiterate and poor household compared to children whose mothers were literate and belong to rich household. Conclusion: To achieve the sustainable development goal 3 targets on under-five mortality by 2030, the EAG states clearly need to reduce U5MR [1]. Keywords: NFHS, MDG, SDG, EAG, Under-five mortality