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Malnutrition and non-communicable diseases among Bangladeshi women: an urban–rural comparison
Authors: M S Zahangir, M M Hasan, A Richardson, and S Tabassum
Source: Nutrition & Diabetes, 7: e250; DOI:10.1038/nutd.2017.2
Topic(s): Nutrition
Rural-urban differentials
Women's health
Country: Asia
Published: MAR 2017
Abstract: Background/Objectives: This study aims at examining the urban–rural differentials in the effects of socioeconomic predictors on underweight and obesity of ever-married women in Bangladesh. The effect of malnutrition and other risk factors on non-communicable diseases is also examined. Subjects/Methods: The information regarding nutritional status, socioeconomic and demographic background, and non-communicable diseases of ever-married women was extracted from the nationally representative, cross-sectional Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 2011) data set. Both bivariate (?2 test) and multivariate (multinomial logistic regression model) analyses were performed in determining the risk factors of malnutrition. The effect of malnutrition and associated risk factors on non-communicable diseases was determined using binary logistic regression models. Results: The overall prevalence as well as the effects of individual risk factors of malnutrition differ in urban and rural settings. Regional differentials in the prevalence of underweight were statistically significant only for rural areas. In rural and urban settings, women from households with poor economic status were 67% (odds ratio (OR) 0.33, 95% CI 0.26–0.43) and 81% (OR=0.19, 95% CI 0.13–0.29) less likely to be overweight, respectively, with respect to those from affluent households. Women from the Rangpur division were significantly more likely to suffer from anemia (OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.13–1.77) and hypertension (OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.19–2.34) than those from the Sylhet division (reference division). With respect to those considered as underweight, women who were categorized as overweight were 0.47 (OR=0.53, 95% CI 0.43–0.65) times less likely to suffer from anemia, and 1.83 (OR=2.83, 95% CI 1.99–4.02) and 1.70 (OR=2.70, 95% CI 2.09–3.50) times more likely to suffer from diabetes and hypertension, respectively. Conclusions: Rural–urban differentials in the effects of individual risk factors of malnutrition were observed. Wealth status of households and nutritional status of women showed significant effect on the prevalence of anemia, diabetes and hypertension.