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Costs Incurred and Determinants of Out-Of-Pocket Payments for Child Delivery Care in India: Evidence From a Nationally Representative Household Survey
Authors: Yuvaraj Krishnamoorthy, Karthika Ganesh, Manikandanesan Sakthivel, Shanthosh Priyan, Tanveer Rehman, and Gayathri Surendran
Source: International Journal of Health Planning and Management, Published online; DOI: 10.1002/hpm.2953
Topic(s): Delivery care
Institutional births
Maternal health
Country: Asia
Published: NOV 2019
Abstract: In India, out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure on health care services has been showing an increasing trend. The cost and willingness to pay determines the use of facility-based maternal health services. Hence, the current study was done to find the costs and determinants of OOP payments on childbirth care in India. We analyzed the most recent National Family Health Survey-4 data (NFHS-4) gathered from the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) program. Stratification and clustering in the sample design were accounted for by using the "svyset" command. Out of 43 507 women, 26 916 (61.9%) had incurred OOP expenditure during their most recent institutional delivery. The average OOP expenditure for delivery care was INR 5985 ($93.3) with median cost being INR 1000 ($15.6). About 80% of women who had OOP expenditure reported that they handled the financial situation by utilizing the money in their bank/savings account. Determinants of OOP expenses were the age of mother, education, religion, state of residence, number of antenatal visits place of delivery, and mode of delivery (P < .05). Out-of-pocket expenditure for accessing care is one of the key determinants of service utilization which, if not addressed by the health system, can deter women from having institutional deliveries in the future. Keywords: India; costs and cost analysis; delivery; health expenditures.