|Prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension among persons aged 15–49 in India: a cross-sectional study|
||Soumitra Ghosh, and Manish Kumar
||BMJ Open, 9: e029714; DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-029714
||Objectives This is the first attempt to provide estimates on the prevalence of hypertension at the national, state and district level, a prerequisite for designing effective interventions. Besides, the study aims to identify the risk factors of hypertension.
Design We analysed cross-sectional survey data from the fourth round (2015–2016) of National Family Health Survey (NFHS). NFHS was conducted between January 2015 and December 2016, gathering information on a range of indicators including blood pressure. The age adjusted prevalence of hypertension was calculated for state comparison, while multilevel logistic regression analysis was done to assess the correlates of hypertension.
Setting and participants India (2015–2016; n=811 917) aged 15–49.
Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome is hypertension, which has been defined as systolic blood pressure =140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure =90 mm Hg.
Results The age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension in India was 11.3% (95% CI 11.16% to 11.43%) among persons aged between 15 and 49 and was four percentage points higher among males 13.8% (95% CI 13.46% to 14.19%) than among females 10.9% (95% CI 10.79% to 11.06%). Persons in the urban location (12.5%, 95% CI 12.25% to 12.80%) had a marginally higher prevalence than persons in rural location (10.6%, 95% CI 10.50% to 10.78%). The proportion of population suffering from hypertension varied greatly between states, with a prevalence of 8.2% (95% CI 7.58% to 8.85%) in Kerala to 20.3% (95% CI 18.81% to 21.77%) in Sikkim. Advancing age, obesity/overweight, male sex, socioeconomic status and consumption of alcohol were found to be the major predictors of hypertension.
Conclusions Hypertension prevalence is now becoming more concentrated among the poor. Policy measures should be taken to improve the hazardous working conditions and growing social pressures of survival responsible for ‘life-style’ changes such as consumption of high calorie food and alcohol.