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Factors Associated with HIV Testing among the General Male Population in Cambodia: A Secondary Data Analysis of the Demographic Health Survey in 2005, 2010, and 2014
Authors: Piseth Narin, Eiko Yamamoto, Yu Mon Saw, Ny Net, Souphalak Inthaphatha, Tetsuyoshi Kariya, and Nobuyuki Hamajima
Source: PLoS ONE , 14(7): e0219820; DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0219820
Topic(s): HIV testing
HIV/AIDS
Men's health
Country: Asia
  Cambodia
Published: JUL 2019
Abstract: In Cambodia, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is predominantly transmitted between spouses and casual partners, with men having higher mortality and morbidity from HIV infection than women due to lesser access to healthcare services and antiretroviral therapy. This study aimed to identify the rate of HIV testing and barriers to HIV testing among the general male population in Cambodia. We analyzed secondary data of men who underwent HIV testing at Voluntary Confidential Counseling and Testing (VCCT) sites in 2006-2017 and of male participants in the Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey (CDHS) in 2005, 2010, and 2014. The number of men who underwent HIV testing at the VCCT sites increased during 2006-2010 and decreased during 2012-2015. CDHS data showed that the lifetime prevalence of HIV testing among men aged 15-49 years gradually increased from 14.7% in 2005 to 36.4% in 2014. Multivariate analysis revealed nine factors associated with a higher lifetime prevalence of HIV testing including: seven sociodemographic factors, namely CDHS year (2010 and 2014), age groups (20-35 and 36-49 years), urban residence, higher education, higher wealth index, having occupations other than agriculture, ever-married status (married and widowed/divorced); and two factors of HIV risk behavior, namely two or more lifetime sexual partners and condom use during the last sexual intercourse. To our knowledge, this is the first study that assessed factors associated with the lifetime prevalence of HIV testing among the general male population in Cambodia. The factors were mostly sociodemographic factors, and no factors were related to condom use, or the diagnosis or symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). These results suggest that reproductive health education at primary schools and strengthening of healthcare provider-initiated testing and counseling for patients with STIs are highly needed in Cambodia.
Web: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6638958/