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The Risk of Developing Cardiovascular Disease in Bangladesh: Does Diabetes Mellitus Matter? Which Socioeconomic Status Does It Impact? A Cross Sectional Study
Authors: G M Rabiul Islam
Source: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension (JASH), 11(1): 45-53.e1; DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.11.001
Topic(s): Diabetes
Country: Asia
Published: JAN 2017
Abstract: The elevation of blood pressure levels has been recognized as a determinant of the risk for several common cardiovascular diseases. This work explores the evidence of disparities in the form of association between hypertension and diabetes mellitus in different socioeconomic statuses (SESs) at household level. A population sample of 7561 individuals aged =35 years from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (BDHS) was used for this study. Concentration indexes are used to measure the disparities of myocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus with SES. A two-level hierarchical logit model was used to examine the effects of participants and household SES accompanied by other explanatory variables on having hypertension. Then, the analysis is stratified by SES groups to examine how the overall effect of diabetes mellitus on hypertension may vary with SES. Finally, predictive margins are determined to understand the predictive probability of diabetes and SES of having hypertension as a risk factor of developing cardiovascular disease. The descriptive summary measures of SES inequality indicate that prevalence of hypertension and diabetes was higher among high SES. The multivariate analysis covering all samples reveals that there is a strong association between diabetes and hypertension (P < .01). Likewise, after stratifying, it is evident that in high SES, there is a strong association between individuals with diabetes mellitus and hypertension development; they have around four-fold higher chance of being affected by hypertension in comparison to individuals with normal fasting plasma glucose (P < .01). Moreover, there are strong associations between individuals in low and medium SESs having diabetes and having hypertension (P < .01); the likelihood of having hypertension is almost double compared to individuals who have no diabetes. The result of this study also shed light on the chance of an increase in prevalence of hypertension in prediabetes individuals and in medium and high SES groups, although the association is statistically insignificant (P > .05). Finally, the predictive analysis reveals that the predictive margin of having hypertension is high among individuals belonging to the high SES (23%; CI, 20-23) and diabetic patients with high SES (37%; CI, 33-47). Contrary to other developed countries, hypertension in Bangladesh is prevalent among all SES, and the likelihood is high among diabetic patients in the medium and high SES. Hence, urgent preventive measures are needed to control the impending comorbidity of diabetes and developing cardiovascular disease risk. Keywords: Diabetes; hypertension; prediabetes; socioeconomic status.