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Patterns and Predictors of Insufficient Antenatal Care Utilization in Nigeria over a Decade: A Pooled Data Analysis Using Demographic and Health Surveys
Authors: Ziad El-Khatib, Emmanuel Kolawole Odusina, Bishwajit Ghose, and Sanni Yaya
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, DOI:
Topic(s): Antenatal care
Mass media
Service utilization
Women's health
Country: Africa
Published: OCT 2020
Abstract: This study investigated the patterns of antenatal care (ANC) utilization and insufficient use of ANC as well as its association with some proximate socio-demographic factors. This was a cross-sectional study using pooled data Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys from years 2008, 2013 and 2018. Participants were 52,654 women of reproductive age who reported at least one birth in the five years preceding the surveys. The outcome variables were late attendance, first contact after first trimester and less than four antenatal visits using multivariable logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of late timing was 74.8% and that of insufficient ANC visits was 46.7%. In the multivariable regression analysis; type of residency, geo-political region, educational level, household size, use of contraceptives, distance to health service, exposure to the media and total number of children were found to be significantly associated with both late and insufficient ANC attendance. About half of the pregnant women failed to meet the recommendation of four ANC visits. Investing on programs to improve women’s socio-economic status, addressing the inequities between urban and rural areas of Nigeria in regard to service utilization, and controlling higher fertility rates may facilitate the promotion of ANC service utilization in Nigeria.