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Factors associated with non-utilization of postnatal care among newborns in the first 2 days after birth in Pakistan: a nationwide cross-sectional study
Authors: Amir Saira, Leigh A. Wilson, Kingsley O. Ezeh, David Lim, Uchechukwu L. Osuagwu, and Kingsley E. Agho
Source: Global Health Action, Vol. 14, No. 1; DOI:
Topic(s): Health care utilization
Institutional births
Postnatal care
Service utilization
Country: Asia
Published: JAN 2021
Abstract: Background Recent data indicated that approximately four in every ten newborns in Pakistan do not receive postnatal care (PNC) services in the first 48 hours after delivery. Objectives This study aimed to identify factors associated with the non-utilization of PNC for newborns in Pakistan using the 2017–18 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS). Methods This was a cross-sectional analytical study utilizing data from 3887 live-born newborns recorded in the 2017–18 PDHS. Non-utilization of PNC was assessed against a set of independent factors using multilevel logistic regression analysis, and the population attributable risk estimates of factors associated with non-utilization of PNC were also calculated. Results There were 1443 newborns (37%) in Pakistan whose mothers did not utilize PNC check-ups in the first 2 days after delivery. The non-utilization of PNC was largely attributable to newborns delivered at non-health facilities 53% (47% to 59%) and those born to uneducated women 27% (13% to 38%). Adjusted analyses indicated that newborns with higher birth order and with a birth interval of more than 2 years, women who perceived their baby to be small at birth, women with no formal education and those living in regional areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Federally Administered Tribal Areas were significantly associated with non-utilization of PNC services. Conclusions Tailored health messages by community health workers, including door-to-door visits on utilizing health facilities through pregnancy to the postnatal periods, are needed and should target places of low socioeconomic status, including educationally disadvantaged women from regional areas of Pakistan.