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Chronic Energy Deficiency and Its Determinant Factors among Adults Aged 18–59 Years in Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Authors: Samuel Dagne, Yonatan Menber, Yosef Wassihun, Gedefaw Dires, Atitegeb Abera, Seteamlak Adane, Melese Linger, and Zelalem T. Haile
Source: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, DOI:
Topic(s): Nutrition
Wealth Index
Country: Africa
Published: JAN 2021
Abstract: Background. The prevalence of undernutrition in low- and middle-income countries is still remarkably high. Undernutrition during adulthood is a greater risk factor for low productivity, poor health, and mortality. There is limited information on the prevalence and determinants of chronic energy deficiency in Ethiopia. Objective. To assess the prevalence and determinants of chronic energy deficiency among adults aged 18–59 years in Ethiopia. Method. A secondary data analysis was conducted using the data obtained from the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey. Data were collected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique, and the analytic sample consisted of 9,280 adults aged 18–59 years. The chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used, and p value <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Result. A total of 9280 adults aged 18–59 years were included in the study and 2911 (28.7%) (95% CI: 27.0%–30.4%) of whom were chronic energy deficient. Adults who have no work (AOR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.72), male adults from Tigray region (AOR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.61, 3.09), Afar region (AOR = 2.98, 95% CI: 2.04, 4.36), Somali region (AOR = 3.14, 95% CI: 2.19, 4.52), Gambella region (AOR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.29, 2.7 6), Harari region (AOR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.19), Amhara region (AOR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.13), Oromia region (AOR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.19), Dire Dawa (AOR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.05), adults live lonely (AOR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.71), and adults residing in poor wealth index households (AOR = 1.26 : 95% CI: 1.07, 1.49) were significantly associated with chronic energy deficiency. Conclusion and recommendation. Chronic energy deficiency among male adults in Ethiopia was a high public health problem. Marital status, wealth index, occupation, and region were significant predictors of chronic energy deficiency. The Ministry of Health with other partners should strictly monitor and evaluate interventions that are being applied and should give focus to adult men to prevent malnutrition.