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Association of intimate partner violence and other risk factors with HIV infection among married women in India: evidence from National Family Health Survey 2015–16
Authors: Neha Shri, T. Muhammad
Source: BMC Public Health, Volume 21, Article number: 2105; DOI:
Topic(s): HIV/AIDS
Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)
Country: Asia
Published: NOV 2021
Abstract: Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains an important public health concern in many countries. It is fuelled by gender inequality and disparity, which has resulted in a fundamental violation of women’s human rights. This study aims to find out the association of intimate partner violence (IPV) and other risk factors with the prevalence of HIV infection among married women in India. Methods: This study is based on data from the India National Family Health Survey (2015–16). Bivariate analysis has been performed to estimate the prevalence of HIV. Logistic regression analysis is conducted to find out the association between IPV, factors such as having alcoholic husband and lifetime partner, and HIV infection among currently married women. Results: Married women who had faced physical, sexual, and emotional violence from their husbands/partners were almost twice more likely to have tested HIV positive compared to married women who did not face violence [OR: 2.14, CI: 1.08–4.50]. The odds of testing for HIV positive was significantly higher among the married women experiencing IPV and having alcoholic husband [OR: 4.48, CI: 1.87–10.70] than those who did not experience IPV and had non-alcoholic husband. The use of condom did not show any significant association with HIV infection. Again, having more than one lifetime partner had a positive association with HIV infection compared to those with one partner [OR: 2.45, CI: 1.21–4.16]. Conclusions: The study revealed that factors such as experiencing all types of IPV, having an alcoholic husband, increased number of lifetime partners, being sexually inactive, belonging to vulnerable social groups, and urban place of residence are important risk factors of HIV infection among married women in India. The results also suggest that gender-based violence and an alcoholic husband may represent a significant factor of HIV infection among married women and interventions should on focus such vulnerable populations.