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Prevalence, Trends, and Socioeconomic Determinants of Coexisting Forms of Malnutrition Amongst Children under Five Years of Age in Pakistan
Authors: Asif Khaliq, Darren Wraith, Yvette Miller, Smita Nambiar-Mann
Source: Nutrients, Volume 13, issue 12; DOI:10.3390/nu13124566
Topic(s): Children under five
Country: Asia
Published: DEC 2021
Abstract: In Pakistan, malnutrition is a chronic issue. Concerns regarding coexisting forms of malnutrition (CFM) in an individual child are emerging, as children suffering from CFM have a 4 to 12-fold higher risk of death compared with healthy children. This study assessed the prevalence, trends, and socioeconomic determinants of various types of CFM using Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS) datasets. Data from children aged 0-5 years old, with complete height and weight information, and valid anthropometry, from all regions of Pakistan (except residents of Azad Jammu Kashmir (AJK) and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), and non-de jure residents), were included. The prevalence of CFM was 30.6% in 2012-2013 and 21.5% in 2017-2018 PDHS. Both PDHSs reported a significantly higher prevalence of CFM in Sindh and Baluchistan compared with other regions of Pakistan. Improved socioeconomic status significantly reduced the odds of various types of CFM, except the coexistence of underweight with wasting. The high prevalence of CFM in Pakistan can be averted by multisectoral collaboration and by integrating nutrition-sensitive and nutrition-specific interventions.