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Factors associated with maternal tetanus vaccination in Myanmar: An analysis of demographic and health survey data
Authors: Zaw MyoTun, ZauRingbc, Clarence C.Tam
Source: Vaccine, Volume 40, issue 8; DOI:
Topic(s): Child health
Health care utilization
Country: Asia
Published: FEB 2022
Abstract: Background: Tetanus toxoid vaccination is a life-saving maternal and child health intervention. Understanding gaps in maternal vaccination coverage is key to informing progress towards universal health coverage. We assessed the vaccination coverage in Myanmar and investigated factors associated with being unvaccinated. Method: In this cross-sectional analysis of 2015–16 Demographic and Health Survey data including women aged 15–49 years with at least one childbirth in the last five years. The outcome maternal tetanus vaccination during her last pregnancy, defined as protected against neonatal tetanus based on the Myanmar National Guidelines for Antenatal Care. We also examined mothers who missed a second dose of tetanus toxoid containing vaccine (TTCV) by states and regions. We used logistic regression models to assess factors associated with being unvaccinated. Results: Overall maternal tetanus vaccination coverage was 72%. At subnational level, the percent unvaccinated was highest in Shan State (42%), followed by Magway Region (33%), Kayin State (33%), and Sagaing Region (32%). The percentage of mothers who missed a second dose of TTCV was high predominantly in regions, rather than states. We found that the percentage of unvaccinated mothers was higher among younger mothers, and mothers with lower educational attainment. No antenatal care (ANC) or receiving ANC in non-public healthcare facilities were strongly associated with being unvaccinated. Differences in percent unvaccinated by maternal age were largely mediated through their healthcare access, particularly ANC services. Interpretation: We identified regional, structural, and individual differences in maternal tetanus vaccination coverage. Factors influencing mothers who missed a second dose of TTCV warrant further investigation. Achieving universal coverage of maternal tetanus vaccination will largely depend on the ability to provide accessible antenatal care to most women who do not currently receive it.