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Trends and determinants of minimum acceptable diet intake among infant and young children aged 6–23?months in Ethiopia: a multilevel analysis of Ethiopian demographic and health survey
Authors: Firanbon Teshome and Afework Tadele
Source: BMC Nutrition, Volume 8, issue 44;DOI:
Topic(s): Child feeding
Child health
Country: Africa
Published: MAY 2022
Abstract: Background: The minimum acceptable diet (MAD) has been used globally as one of the main indicators to assess the adequacy of feeding practices. More than half of the causes of under-five child mortality in developing countries including Ethiopia are attributed to malnutrition. With the exception of anecdotal information on the subject, progress overtime and how it influences the MAD has not been studied or well understood. Thus, this study aimed to determine the trends and determinants of MAD intake among infants and young children aged 6–23?months in Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based national survey dataset from the Ethiopian demographic and health survey (EDHS) 2019 were to identify predictors of MAD. In addition, the 2011, 2016, and 2019 EDHS data was used for trend analysis. The World Health Organization indicators were used to measure MAD. A weighted sample of 1457 infants and young children aged 6–23?months. A mixed-effects multi-level logistic regression model was employed using STATA version 16.0. Results: The proportions of infants and young children who received the MADs in Ethiopia were 4.1%, 7.3%, and 11.3% during the survey periods of 2011, 2016, and 2019, respectively. Having mothers who attended primary education [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) =2.33 (95% C.I 1.25 to 4.35)], secondary education [aOR?=?2.49 (95% C.I 1.03 to 6.45)], or higher education [aOR?=?4.02 (95% C.I 1.53 to 10.54)] compared to those who never attended formal education. Being in a medium househoold wealth [aOR?=?4.06 (95% C.I 1.41 to 11.72)], higher-level wealth [aOR?=?4.91 (95% C.I 1.49 to 16.13)] compared to those in the lowest househoold wealth. Being in 12–18?months age group [aOR?=?2.12 (95% C.I 1.25 to 3.58)] and in 18–23?months age category [aOR?=?2.23 (1.29 to 3.82)] compared to 6–11?months age group; and having postnatal check-ups [aOR?=?2.16 (95% C.I 1.31 to 3.55)] compared to their counterparts. Moreover, residing in urban [aOR?=?3.40 (95% C.I 1.73 to 6.68)]; living in a communities’ where majority had a media exposure [aOR 1.80 (95% C.1.17 to 2.77)] were found to be significantly influenc consumption of the MAD. Conclusions: The trends of MAD among children of 6–23?months was steady in Ethiopia. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors such as maternal education, child age, household wealth; and health system related factors such as maternal postnatal check-ups had a significant influence on infants’ and young children’s MAD feeding. Indeed, commnity-level factors such as place of residence, and media exposure affect the MAD of infants and young children. Thus, behavioral change communication interventions are recommended to improve dietary practices in infants and young children.