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Socioeconomic inequalities in the HIV testing during antenatal care: evidence from Indian demographic health survey, 2015–16
Authors: Santosh Kumar Sharma and Deepanjali Vishwakarma
Source: BMC Public Health, Volume 22, issue 979; DOI:
Topic(s): HIV testing
Women's health
Country: Asia
Published: MAY 2022
Abstract: Background: In India, there is currently a lack of data on socioeconomic inequalities in HIV testing on a national scale; thus, understanding socioeconomic inequalities in response to expanded HIV testing is critical for assessing and ensuring equity of HIV programmes in accordance with the Sustainable Development Goals. The specific objective of the study was to determine the factor associated with HIV testing during antenatal care and assess the socio-economic inequalities in HIV testing during antenatal care (ANC) among Indian women aged 15–49?years with a live birth in the two years preceding the survey. Methods: The results drawn from the state module of women data file of fourth round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4, 2015–16), considering HIV testing during antenatal care among women aged 15–49 who gave live birth in the two years preceding the survey and received the result of HIV test as a matter of fact. Method, such as, descriptive statistics, binary ogistic regression, concentration index were used in the analysis. Results: The findings of the study show that HIV testing during antenatal care was low (30%) among women in India. Our findings reveal that there were significant inequalities exist in HIV testing during ANC between richer and poorer quintile of women. Education, place of residence, comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS, and regular exposure of mass media were substantially contributing to socioeconomic inequality in HIV testing during ANC among women in India. Conclusions: The socioeconomic inequities in HIV testing during pregnancy should be monitored and addressed in order to ensure an equitable distribution of the benefits specially among children and accomplishments of HIV programs in India.