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Regional with urban–rural variation in low birth weight and its determinants of Indian children: findings from National Family Health Survey 5 data
Authors: Ramendra Nath Kundu, Anushka Ghosh, Birshikha Chhetri, Indranil Saha, Md. Golam Hossain, and Premananda Bharati
Source: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , Volume 23, Article Number 616; DOI:
Topic(s): Birth weight
Child health
Rural-urban differentials
Country: Asia
Published: AUG 2023
Abstract: Background Low birth weight is a key indicator for child health, especially a concern in low-middle-income countries. However, health and medically-related reforms are being actively implemented in some middle-income countries like India. Identifying low birth weight (LBW) babies with their determinants across the whole country is essential to formulate regional and area-specific interventions. The objective of this study was to find out the burden and determinants of LBW on the regional and residential (rural–urban) divisions of India. Methods The present study was based on the NFHS-5 dataset (2019–21), a nationally representative survey in India. A total of 209,223 births were included in this study. A newborn weighing less than 2500 g was considered as LBW. According to the objectives, we used frequency distribution, chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis for analysing the data. Results About 18.24% of the babies were LBW in India, significantly higher in rural areas than in urban areas (18.58% vs 17.36%). Regionally prevalence was more frequent in western (20.63%) and central (20.16%) rural areas. Regarding maternal concerns, in the eastern and southern regions of India, mothers aged 25–34 were less likely to have LBW children than mothers aged 35–49 years. It was found that the risk of LBW was more likely among the children born out of unintended pregnancies in almost all regions except for eastern part. In rural India, women who delivered children at home were more likely to have LBW children in India (AOR?=?1.19, CI: 1.12–1.28, p?