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Coverage and Determinants of Full Immunization: Vaccination Coverage among Senegalese Children
Authors: Abdur Razzaque Sarker, Raisul Akram, Nausad Ali, Zahedul Islam Chowdhury, and Marufa Sultana
Source: Medicina, 55(8): 480; DOI: 10.3390/medicina55080480
Topic(s): Child health
Country: Africa
Published: AUG 2019
Abstract: In line with the global success of immunization, Senegal achieved impressive progress in childhood immunization program. However, immunization coverage is often below the national and international targets and even not equally distributed across the country. The objective of this study is to estimate the full immunization coverage across the geographic regions and identify the potential factors of full immunization coverage among the Senegalese children. Materials and Methods: Nationally representative dataset extracted from the latest Continuous Senegal Demographic and Health Survey 2017 was used for this analysis. Descriptive statistics such as the frequency with percentage and multivariable logistic regression models were constructed and results were presented in terms of adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Overall, 70.96% of Senegalese children aged between 12 to 36 months were fully immunized and the coverage was higher in urban areas (76.51%), west ecological zone (80.0%), and among serer ethnic groups (77.24%). Full immunization coverage rate was almost the same between male and female children, and slightly higher among the children who were born at any health care facility (74.01%). Children who lived in the western zone of Senegal were 1.66 times (CI: 1.25-2.21; p = 0.001) and the children of Serer ethnic groups were 1.43 times (CI: 1.09-1.88; p = 0.011) more likely to be fully immunized than the children living in the southern zone and from the Poular ethnic group. In addition, children who were born at health facilities were more likely to be fully immunized than those who were born at home (AOR = 1.47; CI: 1.20-1.80; p < 0.001), and mothers with recommended antenatal care (ANC) (4 and more) visits during pregnancy were more likely to have their children fully immunized than those mother with no ANC visits (AOR: 2.06 CI: 1.19-3.57; p = 0.010). Conclusions: Immunization coverage was found suboptimal by type of vaccines and across ethnic groups and regions of Senegal. Immunization program should be designed targeting low performing areas and emphasize on promoting equal access to education, decision-making, encouraging institutional deliveries, and scaling up the use of antenatal and postnatal care which may significantly improve the rate full immunization coverage in Senegal.