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Development of the India Patriarchy Index: Validation and Testing of Temporal and Spatial Patterning
Authors: Abhishek Singh, Praveen Chokhandre, Ajeet Kumar Singh, Kathryn M. Barker, Kaushalendra Kumar, Lotus McDougal, K. S. James, and Anita Raj
Source: Social Indicators Research, DOI:
Topic(s): Gender
Women’s empowerment
Country: Asia
Published: JUL 2021
Abstract: While existing indices of gender equality measure the role of women’s status and position, they inadequately contextualize the broader construct of patriarchy, a social system that underlies many gender inequitable practices. An index capturing patriarchy may afford increased understanding of this social system, and may serve to complement other gender equality indices. This paper involves the development and testing of a novel composite measure, the India Patriarchy Index, to quantify the social and ideological construct of patriarchy using empirical data on family structure and gender roles. Using data from India’s National Family Health Survey, we develop an India Patriarchy Index to measure gendered social positioning in families based on sex by age, patrilocality, sex ratio imbalance among offspring, and gendered economic roles. Psychometric testing demonstrates good internal reliability and construct validity of this index, with validity indicated by its association with three gender equality indices used in India. Spatial and temporal analyses further indicate much state-level variation in India Patriarchy Index scores as well as slow change on this indicator over time, based on time trend analyses from 1992–93 to 2015–16. Results demonstrate the utility of the India Patriarchy Index to measure and track gender equality progress in India.