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The effects of community clustering on under-five mortality in India: a parametric shared frailty modelling approach
Authors: Wahengbam Bigyananda Meitei, Abhishek Singh and Laishram Ladusingh
Source: Genus, Volume 78, issue 18; DOI:
Topic(s): Children under five
Country: Asia
Published: MAY 2022
Abstract: The study of the effect of community clustering of under-five mortality has its implications in both research and policy. Studies have shown the contribution of community factors on under-five mortality. However, these studies did not account for censoring. We examine the presence of community dependencies and determine the risk factors of under-five mortality in India and its six state-regions by employing a Weibull hazard model with gamma shared frailty. We considered every possible way to ensure that the frailty models used in the study are not merely a consequence of how the data are organized rather than representing a substantive assumption about the source of the frailty. Data from the fourth round of the National Family Health Survey has been used. The study found that except for south India, children born in the same community in India and the other five state-regions shared similar characteristics of under-five mortality. The risk of under-five mortality decreased with an increase in mother’s schooling. Except for northern region, female births were less likely to die within first five years of life. We found a U-shaped relationship between preceding birth interval and under-five mortality. History of sibling’s death, multiple births and low-birthweight significantly increases the risk of under-five mortality in all the six state-regions. The Hindu–Muslim mortality gaps and Scheduled Caste or Tribe’s mortality disadvantage is diminishing. Since the factors associated with under-five mortality were not necessarily the same across the six state-regions of India, adopting a uniform approach in dealing with under-five mortality in India may not benefit all the regions equally