|Mixed effect analysis of factors influencing the use of insecticides treated bed nets among pregnant women in Ghana: evidence from the 2019 Malaria Indicator Survey|
||Desmond Klu, Matilda Aberese-Ako, Alfred Kwesi Manyeh, Mustapha Immurana, Phidelia Doegah, Maxwell Dalaba, Evelyn Acquah, Robert Kaba Alhassan, Evelyn Korkor Ansah
||BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , Volume 22, issue 1; DOI:10.1186/s12884-022-04586-2
Insecticidetreated mosquito nets (ITNs)
||Background: Malaria during pregnancy is a major cause of maternal morbidity globally and leads to poor birth outcomes. The World Health Organization has recommended the use of insecticide treated bed nets (ITN) as one of the effective malaria preventive strategies among pregnant women in malaria endemic areas. This study, therefore, seeks to examine the individual and household factors associated with the use of ITNs among pregnant women in Ghana.
Methods: Data for this study was obtained from the 2019 Ghana Malaria Indicator Survey (GMIS) conducted between September 25 and November 24, 2019. The weighted sample comprised 353 pregnant women aged 15-49 years. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 22 using both descriptive and multilevel logistics regression modelling. Statistically significant level was set at p < 0.05.
Results: The study found that 49.2% of pregnant women in Ghana use ITN to prevent malaria. Pregnant women aged 35-49 years (AOR = 3.403, CI: 1.191-9.725), those with no formal education (AOR = 5.585, CI = 1.315-23.716), and those who had secondary education (AOR = 3.509, CI = 1.076-11.440) had higher odds of using ITN. Similarly, higher odds of ITN usage was found among who belonged to the Akan ethnic group (AOR = 7.234, CI = 1.497-34.955), dwell in male-headed households (AOR = 2.232, CI = 1.105-4.508) and those whose household heads are aged 60-69 years (AOR = 4.303, CI = 1.160-15.966). However, pregnant women who resided in urban areas (AOR = 0.355, CI = 0.216-0.582), those whose household heads aged 40-49 years (AOR = 0.175, CI = 0.066-0.467) and those who belonged to richer (AOR =0.184, CI = 0.050-0.679) and richest (AOR = 0.107, CI = 0.021-0.552) households had lower odds of using ITN for malaria prevention.
Conclusions: Individual socio-demographic and household factors such as pregnant women's age, educational level, place of residence, ethnicity, sex and age of household head, and household wealth quintile are associated with the use of ITN for malaria prevention among pregnant women. These factors ought to be considered in strengthening malaria prevention campaigns and develop new interventions to help increase ITN utilization among vulnerable population living in malaria- endemic areas.