The report summarizes levels and recent changes in 69 indicators of HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of women and men age 15–49 in 23 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Data come from the two most recent rounds of population-based, nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted between 1992 and 2006.
The study provides a comprehensive look at the levels and direction of many important HIV/AIDS-related indicators in sub-Saharan countries. Notably, the study finds evidence of improvements in HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes but also highlights persistent high levels of sexual risk-taking and very low levels of voluntary counseling and testing coverage and condom use. These findings make a case for strengthening prevention programs in sub-Saharan Africa with a range of efforts to promote safer sexual behavior.
The study also highlights large differentials between women and men in a number of HIV-related indicators, and wide variations among the 23 countries studied in the levels of and recent changes in HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. These differences suggest the need for HIV prevention, treatment, and care policies and programs to be gender and context specific.