Publications Summary

Document Type
Further Analysis
Indonesia DHS, 1997
Recommended Citation
Permana, Ida Bagus and Charles F. Westoff. 1999. The Two-Child Norm in Indonesia. DHS Further Analysis Reports No. 28. Calverton, Maryland, USA: Macro International
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Publication Date
November 1999
Publication ID


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With a population of more than two hundred million people, Indonesia is the world's fourth most populous country after China, India, and the United States. Indonesia has experienced two contradictory population policies. From the time of independence in 1945 until the mid-1960s, the government was strongly pro-natalist, stressing that a large national population was needed to fully exploit the potential of the natural resources of the country. This situation changed as the New Order Government came to power, particularly after President Suharto joined other heads of state in signing the Declaration of the World Leaders in 1967. In this declaration, rapid population growth was considered an obstacle to socioeconomic development. A total policy reversal was signaled when the president established a government agency, called the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN) which is responsible for coordinating family planning programs in the country. The twin goals of the programs were to promote the norm of a "small, happy, and prosperous family," and to reduce fertility through the promotion of contraceptive use. The quantitative aim of the government population policy has been to achieve replacement level fertility, by vigorously promoting the two-child norm, by the year 2010-2015, and to reach zero population growth by the year 2050.


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