This report used reproductive calendar data from 43 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) representing 61 percent of the developing world’s population (excluding China) to examine the use of family planning in the postpartum period. Postpartum women are more likely to use injectables and the lactational amenorrhea method and less likely to use female sterilization compared with all currently married women. In most countries use of postpartum family planning is not strongly related to the age of the mother, parity, or the wantedness of the last birth. In most countries use of postpartum family planning is positively related to urban location, wealth, education level, achievement of desired family size, and current fertility desires. It is negatively related to the number of children under age 5 born to the woman. There is the strong correlation between use of maternal health care and use of postpartum family planning.